中央日本とその周辺の霊場と寺院宗派の影響 [in Japanese] Sacred Places and the Effects of Temple Sect Distribution in and around Central Japan [in Japanese]
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In this study, the field investigation of the sacred places was done in and around Central Japan. Moreover, the distribution of the temple sects that related to them was clarified. In addition, the transition of the sacred place was examined from various regional bases of nature, belief, and so on. The main results are as follows. 1)The sacred point is on the characteristic natural landscape. Two or more Shinto shrines and different sect temples have gathered there. Though the sacred point is not a daily one, its environment is not a daily one, either. There is an amusement center next to the sacred point as there is a hell next to the paradise, and that makes both of them more remarkable. And it gives the sacred point and its surrounding a combined character. 2)Much more various elements are included in the sacred place where 33 and 88 sacred points were connected. The sects of Shingon, Zen, etc. are related to the sacred place and many pantheons are enshrined there. These sacred places had expanded from Ise, Kumano, Yoshino, Koya, Hiei, etc. to the peripheral regions, and even local elements came to be included there. 3)Ise is the area of Shintoism; Koyasan, esoteric Buddhism; Yoshino, Asceticism; and Kumano, the syncretization of Shinto with Buddhism. Such character of Kumano was suitable for the desire of the aristocrat, etc., and many people came to visit Kumano from at the end of the ancient period. 4)Saigoku sacred places came to be crowded since the iddle Ages. The goddess of mercy enshrined there was related to many sects and her sutras were widely recited. Much more various gods were enshrined in the sacred place, and that made the place very Japanese and therefore, accepted by people. At the pilgrimage of Saigoku sacred places, not only 33 sacred points but also Ise, Yoshino, Koyasan, the scenic areas, etc. were visited, and the sacred points came to include extremely various content in themselves. 5)Shikoku sacred places came to be crowded after the recent times, and "two in company" visited Kobodaishi's sage mark. Various gods and buddhas such as Goddess of Mercy, Fudo, and Jizo are enshrined in the sacred places. Moreover, the mild climate and the custom of entertaining may have made Shikoku sacred places widely interested. 6)Many local sacred places were established from the recent times. They were usually composed of Shingon sect temples. However, in the region with a powerful temple of another sect, that sect was the main part of the sacred place. The Shinto shrine where a local god is enshrined might not change even if the main temple sect changes greatly in the region. In such a region, it may not be the temple sect but the local Shinto shrine that relates to the sacred place. 7)The sacred place is related to a specific sect. However, holly sites, sage marks, etc. are seen in any sects. Therefore, they are visited in any sect just like the pilgrimage of the sacred place. As mentioned above, various gods and buddhas are enshrined in the sacred places. It can be thought that various elements had joined to the sacred places through the ages, and they became more and more diversified.
- Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Toyama University
Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Toyama University (8), 43-56, 2005-09
University of Toyama