生活時間研究における「平均時間」再考 [in Japanese] Reexamining Average Hours of Activity [in Japanese]
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The ordinary time use studies have been exclusively using average hours of activities as a tool for analyzing the structure of daily life of people belonging to various categories of groups such as different nations, genders, age groups, occupations, and so on. But, as the existing approach has such defects as I pointed out later, I have been engaged in developing another new analytical method that employs a table of percentages of persons engaged in activities at every time slots of a day. I call my approach 'activity rates approach.' On the other hand, I call the existing ordinary approach using average hours of activity 'average duration approach.' The aim of this paper is to clarify the structure of average hours of activity from the standpoint of my approach, because it serves to alleviate the defects of average duration approach, suggest the merits of my approach, and throw a bridge between the existing approach and mine. Before showing the essence of my paper, I refer to my basic idea that helps to analyze average hours of activities. Let us suppose that people of society A like to spend more time on dinner than on lunch, while people of society B like to have more time on lunch than on dinner, although two societies show the same average number of hours of meals per person in a day. This means that the average hours of meals do not reflect the different dietary habits between two societies. If we are given information how many percentages of persons are engaged in meals of every time slots of a day, we can discern the dietary style of society A from that of society B. As for the above mentioned case, we might get such information that people of society A show higher participation rate in meal at the time slots of dinner rather than those of lunch, and people of society B reveal higher participation rate in it at the time slots of lunch than those of dinner. Following this reasoning, we could think that the more close participation or activity rates of meals two societies show at every time slots, the more similar their style of meals are. We could apply this analytical logic to other kinds of activities, such as sleeping, working, TV watching, and so on that organize the daily lefe of people. If every activity shows higher similarities, we might conclude that people of two societies bear higher resemblance to each other as for the life style. When the total activity rates (sum of activity rate of every time slot) of activity X of group A is larger than those of activity X of group B, the X's total activity rates of group A is divided into (1) 'residual activity rates' that can be obtained from drawing the X's total activity rates of group B from those of group A, and (2) 'basic (non-residual) activity rates' that are equal to the less activity rates of between two groups, namely the X's total activity rates of group B. The basic activity rates can be further divided into two parts, namely, (2-1) 'coincident equal activity rates' that can be obtained by adding up the less or equal activity rate of between groups at the same time slot, and (2-2) 'balanced coincident unequal activity rates' that can be got by subtracting the coincident equal activity rates from the basic activity rates. In contrast to this 'balanced coincident unequal activity rates', exist 'unbalanced coincident unequal activity rates' that are the another name of 'residual activity rates' listed as (1). On the other hand, the X's total activity rates of group B consists only of (2-1) 'coincident equal activity rates' and (2-2) 'balanced coincident unequal activity rates', both of which show the same amount of activity rates with those of group A, and constitute 'basic activity rates.' In this way, we can also analyze the total activity rates of every other kind of activity of between group A and group B into these three elements. The higher weight of 'coincident equal activity rates' of an activity means the higher similarity of activity style of between both groups, as is shown earlier. Apart from analyzing the structure of average hours of activity of an activity, can be thought an analysis of the structure of a day. Adding up 'coincident equal activity rates' of each activity leads us to have total 'coincident equal activity rates' of group A or group B. In the same way, we can get total 'balanced coincident unequal activity rates' and total 'unbalanced coincident unequal activity rates' of group A or group B. The value of each element of group A is the same as that of group B, although the contents of activities of the third element (total 'unbalanced coincident unequal activity rates' or 'residual activity rates') are different between groups (See Fig. 2 in the paper). We can convert the activity rates of each element into average hours by multiplying them by the length of time slot (15 minutes or so) and divide them by 100%. In this way, we can grasp the structure of a day by hours of three elements, the proportion of which enable us to get a new measure to assess the extent of similarity of he life style of both groups.
- Shimane journal of policy studies
Shimane journal of policy studies (1), 131-148, 2001-03
The University of Shimane