ネパール・カトマンズ盆地における馬鈴薯作付け農地の季節賃貸借に関する実態分析 An Analysis of Seasonal Agricultural Land Lease for Potato Cultivation in Kathmandu Valley
Informal land transactions, particularly rental land markets for raising potato crops, are emerging in the rural Kathmandu basin of Nepal in response to the increasing number of part time farming groups (with the improvement in the education level of family members in farm households). The aim of this paper is to analyze informal land rental markets, particularly the type of farmer that leases land and the level of land lease based on farm surveys. The farmers who lease land have very small farmland or they hardly have their own agricultural land. Because they cannot secure non-agricultural jobs, they are forced to rent farmland to lease in to improve their incomes. On the other hand, those who lease out their land have stable jobs to earn enough income to support their families. Some of them live out of the village, because their bases of work are also out of the village. Even if they live in the village, they can earn a good income compared to farming, for example, from managing a shop etc. When they cannot carry on farming because of a lack of labor force, they tend to use the seasonal land rental markets to lease out land. The most common relationships between landlords and tenants are family or friends. Two types of informally arranged land rental contracts are used. The one is called Adhya and the other is called Dhiba. Adya is a crop-sharing arrangement and Dhiba is a cash rental. Adhya tenants pay some proportional amount of the paddy's total yield to landlords. Dhiba tenants pay a fixed amount of cash to landlords. Both types of rental rates are directly correlated with land quality, such as irrigation. The landlords can grow rice because they do not need so much labor to cultivate it as compared to potatoes. As potatoes are the highest labor intensive crops, the landlords cannot grow potatoes while they engage in non-farming income activities. This is the main reason for the appearance of seasonal land rent. This study also suggests that part-time farming groups are emerging because their farm land is leased out to marginal farmers and marginal farmers can improve their welfare by growing potatoes.
農経論叢 61, 1-15, 2005