南洋上代史雜考 [in Japanese] Notes on the ancient history of Southeast Asia [in Japanese]
Access this Article
Search this Article
The contents are as follow: 1. The Three Provinces (南海, 桂林, 象郡) of South China in the Ch'in (秦) Dynasty and the Nine Provinces (南海, 蒼梧, 鬱林, 合浦, 交阯, 九眞, 日南, 〓耳, 珠崖郡) of the Han (漢) Dynasty. The Shih-chi (史記) mentions the establishment of the Nine Provinces after the defeat of Nan-yueh. (南越国). According to the chronicle of Wu-ti (武帝) in the Han-shu (漢書). the Nine Provinces were established in 111 B.C. (元鼎6年), but in other chapters (地理志, 賈捐之傅) of the same book two (〓耳, 珠崖) of them were established in 110 B.C. (元封元年). The Mouling-shu (茂陵書), probably found in the tomb of Wu-ti, mentions Hsiang (象) Province. Dr. N. Sugimoto says that the Nine Provinces mentioned in the Shih-chi included the two provinces 桂林 and 象郡 rather than the two provinces 〓耳 and 珠崖郡. I think that the Nine Provinces of Shih-chi were the same as those of the Han-shu, but the Han-shu was not correct in dating the establishment of the Nine Provinces in 111 B.C. The correct dates are 111 B.C. and 110 B.C. As for the Hsiang Province, I think that it was established by Wu-ti after the establishment of the Nine Provinces, and I locate the province in the western part of Kuang-hsi (廣西省). 2. The southern frontier of the Han empire and maritime intercourse with the western countries. Huang-chi (黄支) presented a rhinoceros as tribute to the court of Wang Mang (王莽). Dr. T. Fujita identified Huang-chi with Kanchipura (Conjeveram) in South India. But I think that Huang-chih was another form, invented intentionally by the Wang Mang party, to represent of Chiao chih (交阯). 3. The founding of Lini (林邑). Dr. G. Coedes identified ￡ri Mara of the Vo-canh inscription with Fan Shih-man (范師曼) of Fu-nan (扶南), but their dates'are not the same, and I can not decide which is correct, Fan Shih-man or Fan Man. 4. The ancient kingdoms (扶南, 眞臘) of Cambodia. 5. Dvaravati (堕和羅) of Siam and the Pyu (驃) in Burma. 6. Hindu colonies in the Malay Peninsula. 7. Srivijaya (室利佛逝) in Sumatra. Many years have passed since I identified the Ch'h-t'u (赤土) of the Sui (隋) Dynasty with the Srivijaya (室利佛逝) of the Tang (唐) Dynasty (東洋學報 IX, 2, 1919). The Chines3 embassy sailed southward along the Malay Peninsula and saw the mountains of Lankasuka (狼牙須). Dr. G. Coedes' identification of Ch'ih-t'u with Patalung in the peninsula is not correct. The Buddhist pilgrim I-ching (義淨) does not mention the name of Ch'ih-t'u. I think that Gh'ih-t'u is the same as Srivijaya, which I-ching visited. 8. The Sailendras in Java. The mohammedans often mention the Maharaja of Jawaga, a name derived from Jawaka, but afterward used to refer to Srivijaya, when the royal family of Srivijaya became the Sailendra. San-fu-ts'i (三佛齊) is not the transcription of Jawaga, but of Srivijaya. 9. Hindu remains,in Borneo and the Celebes.
- Memoirs of the Faculty of Literature, Osaka University
Memoirs of the Faculty of Literature, Osaka University (3), 1-43b, 1954-03-25
Faculty of Letters, Osaka University