地方霊場の開創とその巡拝路について [in Japanese] Establishment of the local sacred place and its pilgrimage way in Japan [in Japanese]
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In this paper, the local sacred places in Hokuriku, southern Tohoku, and southern Kanto were investigated mainly from the viewpoint of pilgrimage ways. In many sacred places, the sacred point has moved around since the time of establishment, and therefore, its pilgrimage way can not be specified. Cluster analysis was used for those sacred places to set up the pilgrimage order, and the pilgrimage way was reconstructed using GIS. Furthermore, the change of the meaning of a pilgrimage way was considered with regard to the sacred places established in recent years. The main results obtained then are as follows. 1) In Hokuriku, many Kannon sacred places etc. were established mainly on Echizen in the late Edo period. And the starting points are distant from the end points in many of their pilgrimage ways. 2) On the southern Tohoku, many sacred places were established in the farm villages and the cities after the Age of Civil Wars. The influence of asceticism was strong and the sacred places of various kinds overlap. 3) Many urban sacred places were established in Tokyo, and there was a tendency to pilgrimage to agroup of some sacred points. On the other hand, the pilgrimages to everywhere in an area was taken in the Tokyo suburbs. 4) Suitable pilgrimage ways were set up using a map software etc. However, the software is for going by car, and they are often unnatural as pilgrimage ways. 5) The sacred point group which exists in a sacred place was extracted by cluster analysis. Furthermore, by combining a neighboring sacred point, a suitable pilgrimage order will be known. 6) A pilgrimage way was reconstructed with the shortest path that avoided the rise and fall considering the angle of inclination. They are considered to resemble the ways made spontaneously. 7) A pilgrimage is one of the annual events having been performed in the shrines, etc. from ancient times. The form of pilgrimage around sacred points came to spread gradually. 8) A pilgrimage is performed individually or by a local group. In the former, pilgrims visit the sacred point group occasionally, and in the latter, a pilgrim group visits everywhere in the area. 9) In the recent pilgrimages, sightseeing and friendships are important besides faith and a mass for the dead. Furthermore, health, culture, etc. are also important. 10) In the aging society, a sacred place connected with temporal benefits is called for. To establish one, the influence from related contractors is large.
- Memoirs of the Faculty of Education,Toyama University
Memoirs of the Faculty of Education,Toyama University (58), 159-172, 2004-02
University of Toyama