明治初期の飛騨地方における堅果類の採集と農耕 The Combination of Nut Gathering and Agriculture in the Hida Area of Japan during 19th Century
Rice cultivation is dominant, even in the mountainous regionsof present-day Japan. This phenomenon became conspicuous,however, only after the mid-twentieth century. Prior to thattime, the collection of wild edible plants, especially nuts, and thecultivation of various cereals, in addition to rice-farming wereimportant means of food procurement.This report covers the Hida area of central Honshu. TheHida area was selected for field research because the vegetationbelts are easy to distinguish and because an ethnography (Hidagofudoki),recording life at the end of the 19th century, was obtained.Hidagofudoki records precisely the amounts of rice, cereals(millet [hie and awa]), and nuts (chestnuts, acorns and buckeyes)for all villages of the Hida area. The results of this study illustratethe combination of resources used in food procurement inJapanese mountain villages at the end of the nineteenth century.The following main points emerged from the study :1. 55% of the 413 villages in the area obtained their staplefood from rice, millets and nuts, whereas the staple food of 28%was rice and other cereals;2. The combination of agriculture and nut-gathering hadan ecologically based vertical distribution, as is represented by thewild vegetation. Rice and other cereal cultivation is distributedbetween 400-600 m; at higher elevations the combination ofrice and other cereal cultivation and nut-gathering occured ;and between 800-1000 m the combination of cereal cultivationand nut-gathering appeared. At elevation above 1000 m thereexisted villages which cultivated only cereals. Nuts rarely growin such a location in the Hida area (Table 13).
国立民族学博物館研究報告 4(1), p1-23, 1979-03