共同研究:新たな時代に向けた教職課程改革 文検における教職教養科目の新設とその性格 [in Japanese] Required Subjects and Their Character in State Examination for Middle School Teacher in Prewar Japan (Collaborative Research Projects) [in Japanese]
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Outline of education and "outline of national morality" were newly introduced for all middle school teacher candidates in the state examination in 1909 and in 1916 respectively, and general education for teaching profession began to be tested. The purpose of this paper is to make clear the reason and process of this introduction and the content of the general education expected of middle school teachers in prewar Japan when a personal god ruled it. National morality had a controversial characteristic at first, because the meaning of it was not always clear, therefore many free and critical opinions about national morality appeared in some educational magazin. But in the state examination it was almost imposible to write freely as one thought, so in the nature of things the state examination played an important role to give a national definition of national morality according to opinions of examiners. Introduction of required subjects (pedagogics, teaching method and ethics) into the state examination contained dual intentions at first, namely, a purely educational necessity as E. Hausknecht insisted and a hidden purpose in order to use them for national polity education. And the latter aspect became more dominant than the former aspect gradually. In this way "outline of national morality" became general education expected of middle school teachers in prewar Japan.
- St.Andrew's University bulletin of the Research Institute
St.Andrew's University bulletin of the Research Institute 26(3), 73-89, 2001-03