ガンマドヴァと山伏神楽 : 継承の視点から  [in Japanese] A Comparative Study of Gammaduwa and Yamabushi Kagura : Continuation and Preservation  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

Superficially, it appears that certain traditional components and cultural features diminish due to the modernization of societies. However, in any period, it is impossible to prevent the changes and disappearances of cultural features in a society. Although traditional cultural features can be preserved through reconstruction, it is impossible to protect non-material cultural features through reconstruction alone. The current study is focused on the preservation of the non-material features of the past examining two examples from Sri Lanka and Japan. The main objective of the study is to examine the role of the state and village level organizations in transmitting these cultural traditions from one generation to another. The principle methodology used here is a comparative field survey. The Gammaduwa in Sri Lanka is a traditional ritual that makes offerings to gods and deities in return for their blessings, and for protection and prosperity of the village. Kagura is a folk ritual which has evolved with Shintoism Buddhism and is indigenous to Japan. The Kagura form has been transmitted from generation to generation and preserved for two purposes ; (1) as an offering performed to provide blessings to the village and country and (2) as a traditional cultural feature that depicts the identity of the nation. There are many features in the Yamabushi Kagura that are similar to the Gammaduwa in Sri Lanka. However, when comparing Gammaduwa with Kagura we can discem two main differences between the two countries. First is the lack of interest in Sri Lanka by the state and the people in village rituals, and the recognition that they are important components of Sri Lankan culture. Second is the lack of understanding about the importance of preserving traditional heritage among Sri Lankans. In Japan, there is an awareness that folk ritual and folk dance are features depicting the cultural identity of the country. Today, due to the fact that the majority of people in Sri Lanka have forgotten folk drama and folk ritual, collective village level entertainment is on the decline. Indeed folk rituals are regarded as a means of finding solutions to the social and economic problems of the country. Our investigation in Japan makes it clear that Kagura differs from one prefecture to another. However, when we look back 100 years at both these rituals, the changes that have taken place in Kagura are insignificant. The maintenance and continuation of Japanese folk dance and rituals have occurred because of the use of modern technology. As a result of technology, cultural features that were limited to the village have now received greater publicity and prestige. In order to save the traditional structure of Gammaduwa, in Sri Lanka it is emphasized that the steps taken to preserve traditional culture in Japan should be used as an example.

Superficially, it appears that certain traditional components and cultural features diminish due to the modernization of societies. However, in any period, it is impossible to prevent the changes and disappearances of cultural features in a society. Although traditional cultural features can be preserved through reconstruction, it is impossible to protect non-material cultural features through reconstruction alone. The current study is focused on the preservation of the non-material features of the past examining two examples from Sri Lanka and Japan. The main objective of the study is to examine the role of the state and village level organizations in transmitting these cultural traditions from one generation to another. The principle methodology used here is a comparative field survey. The Gammaduwa in Sri Lanka is a traditional ritual that makes offerings to gods and deities in return for their blessings, and for protection and prosperity of the village. Kagura is a folk ritual which has evolved with Shintoism Buddhism and is indigenous to Japan. The Kagura form has been transmitted from generation to generation and preserved for two purposes ; (1) as an offering performed to provide blessings to the village and country and (2) as a traditional cultural feature that depicts the identity of the nation. There are many features in the Yamabushi Kagura that are similar to the Gammaduwa in Sri Lanka. However, when comparing Gammaduwa with Kagura we can discem two main differences between the two countries. First is the lack of interest in Sri Lanka by the state and the people in village rituals, and the recognition that they are important components of Sri Lankan culture. Second is the lack of understanding about the importance of preserving traditional heritage among Sri Lankans. In Japan, there is an awareness that folk ritual and folk dance are features depicting the cultural identity of the country. Today, due to the fact that the majority of people in Sri Lanka have forgotten folk drama and folk ritual, collective village level entertainment is on the decline. Indeed folk rituals are regarded as a means of finding solutions to the social and economic problems of the country. Our investigation in Japan makes it clear that Kagura differs from one prefecture to another. However, when we look back 100 years at both these rituals, the changes that have taken place in Kagura are insignificant. The maintenance and continuation of Japanese folk dance and rituals have occurred because of the use of modern technology. As a result of technology, cultural features that were limited to the village have now received greater publicity and prestige. In order to save the traditional structure of Gammaduwa, in Sri Lanka it is emphasized that the steps taken to preserve traditional culture in Japan should be used as an example.

Journal

  • The journal of Daito Asian studies

    The journal of Daito Asian studies 1, 19-33, 2001-03-31

    Daito Bunka University

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110004722409
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11580892
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • ISSN
    21859760
  • Data Source
    NII-ELS  IR 
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