東南アジアの魚醤 : 魚の発酵製品の研究 (5) Gyosho in Southeast Asia : A Study of Fermented Aquatic Products (5)
A wide range of products made by the fermentation of bothfreshwater and marine organisms plays a fundamental role incuisines throughout Southeast Asia (which in this article alsoincludes Bangladesh), where they function principally as condimentalside dishes. The fermented fish products of the region areexamined here by country in terms of present-day geographicaldistribution, type of raw material, processing techniques andconsumption patterns. Five types of product are examined :shiokara, shiokara paste, shrimp paste, fish sauce, and shrimp sauce.The wide range of fermented fish products made in SoutheastAsia can be classified strictly only by individual country or bylanguage grouping. Thus for the comparative purposes of thisarticle we have used a simple generic classification based onboth the nature of the final product and the method used toprepare it.The fermented product of fish and salt that preserves theoriginal whole of partial shape of the fish raw material yieldsa product known as shiokara, which when comminuted by eitherpounding or grinding yields shiokara paste. In this case thefinal product has a condiment-like character, and can be easilydissolved into a liquid. The liquid resulting from the fermentationprocess yields a fish sauce. This same system of classificationis also applied, with qualification, to products preparedfrom shrimp and other aquatic organisms. Other items, such asrice bran and pineapple, for example, may be added to thefish-salt mixture either to enhance the flavor of the final product,to speed the fermentation process, or for a combination of bothobjectives.This is the fifth in a series of articles that reports the resultsof a comprehensive field survey of fermented fish productsconducted by the authors in East and Southeast Asia duringthe period 1982-85. The research was supported financially bythe Ajinomoto Co., of Tokyo. Previous articles have surveyedthe types of fermented fish products in Northeast Asia [石毛(ISHIGE) 1986] and narezushi (fish fermented in the presence ofrice or another vegetable product) [石毛(ISHIGE) 1987], andthe ecological basis for the supply of raw materials from marine[RUDDLE 1986] and freshwater [RUDDLE 1987] sources. Thefinal two papers in the series will examine, respectively, thechemistry of fermented fish products and their dietary andculinary roles, and the origins and distribution of these products.
国立民族学博物館研究報告 12(2), 235-314, 1987-11-10