伊豆半島の民家庭園における維管束植物相  [in Japanese] Vascular Plant Flora in Home Gardens in Izu-Peninsula  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 道下雄大 MICHISHITA Yudai
    • 大阪府立大学大学院農学生命科学研究科生態保全学研究室 Laboratory of Conservation Ecology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University
    • 梅本 信也 UMEMOTO Shinya
    • 京都大学フィールド科学教育研究センター里域生態系部門 Field Science Research Center, Kyoto University
    • 山口 裕文 YAMAGUCHI Hirofumi
    • 大阪府立大学大学院農学生命科学研究科生態保全学研究室 Laboratory of Conservation Ecology, Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University

Abstract

外周型の構造をとる日本の民家庭園では,さまざまな有用植物や野生植物が利用保存されて来た。このような庭園での植物と人との関わりを明瞭にする一例として,2004年の春と秋の2回,伊豆半島北部の2集落と東南部の2集落で,計80軒の民家庭園に生育する維管束植物を調査し,現地の住民より利用法と導入由来を聞き取った。145科781種の植物の生育が確認された。確認されたすべての種は,確認された軒数,常在度,鉢植えにされているかどうか(鉢比率),利用法とともに表1に示した。常在度は,雑草ではカタバミ,イヌワラビ,オニタビラコ,メヒシバ,コモチマンネングサ,ツメクサの順に高く,雑草を除く有用植物では,ドクダミ,ナンテン,ヒラドツツジ,キリシマツツジ,ウメ,イワヒバの順で高かった。有用植物には,631種あり,観賞,垣根,食用,薬用,儀礼,工芸用として利用されていた。有用植物の約8割は観賞用であり,花,葉,果実が観賞されたり,盆栽や忍玉として利用されたりしていた。鉢比率は,ナツメグゼラニウム,ウキツリボク,ハナスベリヒユ,外国産多肉植物など商店で購入された観賞植物や盆栽の植物などで高い傾向にあった。聞き取り調査で明らかとなった植物の導入先や由来は,自然実生の侵入,山野からの採集,店からの購入,贈答の4つに大別でき,その違いによって管理の様子に違いがあった。多様な由来をもつ植物が確認されたが,特に至近の野山から導入されたエビネ類,クマガイソウなどの日本原産林床性種に貴重種が多く,民家庭園は遺伝資源の現地保全(in site conservation)の機能を果たしているとも考えられた。Various useful plants and wild plants have been conserved and used in Japanese home gardens, which are surrounding dweller's house. In order to elucidate relationship between plants and human being, vascular plant flora in 80 home gardens of 4 hamlets including 2 hamlets in northern and southeastern Izu-peninsula was investigated in spring and autumn in 2004. Seven hundreds and eighty-one species belonging to 145 families were recorded in the sites studied. All species surveyed were inventoried as well as the number of gardens where each species was recorded, frequency, pot maintenance and plant use in Table 1. Frequency of weeds was the highest in Oxalis corniculata, Athyrium niponicum, Youngia japonica, Digitaria adscendens, Sedum bulbiferum and Sagina japonica in the order. Frequency of useful plants except for weeds was the highest in Houttuynia cordata, Nandina domestica, Rhododendron cv., Rhododendron obtusum, Prunus mume and Selaginella temariscina in the order. Of them 631 were useful plants, and used as ornamental, hedge, edible, medicinal, ritual and craft plants. Eighty percent of useful plants were ornamental, and used as Bonsai, Shinobudama, etc., attracted by flower, fruit or leaf. Pot maintenance was high in Bonsai or plants purchased at shops such as Perargonium × fragrans, Abutilon megapotamicum, Portulaca oleracea, foreign fleshy plants, etc. Plants were managed in various ways in accordance with their introduction processes, such as invaded seedling into home garden, collection in natural fields or mountains, purchase at shops and gifts, and showed various origins. Red list species were recorded especially in Japanese native plants, such as Calanthe sp., Cypripedium japonicum, etc., therefore traditional home garden may function as in situ conservation.

Various useful plants and wild plants have been conserved and used in Japanese home gardens, which are surrounding dweller's house. In order to elucidate relationship between plants and human being, vascular plant flora in 80 home gardens of 4 hamlets including 2 hamlets in northern and southeastern Izu-peninsula was investigated in spring and autumn in 2004. Seven hundreds and eighty-one species belonging to 145 families were recorded in the sites studied. All species surveyed were inventoried as well as the number of gardens where each species was recorded, frequency, pot maintenance and plant use in Table 1. Frequency of weeds was the highest in Oxalis corniculata, Athyrium niponicum, Youngia japonica, Digitaria adscendens, Sedum bulbiferum and Sagina japonica in the order. Frequency of useful plants except for weeds was the highest in Houttuynia cordata, Nandina domestica, Rhododendron cv., Rhododendron obtusum, Prunus mume and Selaginella temariscina in the order. Of them 631 were useful plants, and used as ornamental, hedge, edible, medicinal, ritual and craft plants. Eighty percent of useful plants were ornamental, and used as Bonsai, Shinobudama, etc., attracted by flower, fruit or leaf. Pot maintenance was high in Bonsai or plants purchased at shops such as Perargonium × fragrans, Abutilon megapotamicum, Portulaca oleracea, foreign fleshy plants, etc. Plants were managed in various ways in accordance with their introduction processes, such as invaded seedling into home garden, collection in natural fields or mountains, purchase at shops and gifts, and showed various origins. Red list species were recorded especially in Japanese native plants, such as Calanthe sp., Cypripedium japonicum, etc., therefore traditional home garden may function as in situ conservation.

Journal

  • Scientific report of the Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University

    Scientific report of the Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University 57, 33-56, 2005-03-31

    Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110004788544
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11576192
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    1346-1575
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NII-ELS  IR 
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