ブロイラー頭部の食品としての利用性について Utilization of Broiler's Head as Food

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ブロイラー頭部は乾物中, 蛋白質53%, カルシウム7.5%, 燐3%, 熱水可溶抽出物3%を含むので蛋白資源活用の面から食品としての利用性について研究した.1)缶詰にしたブロイラー頭部を0.7気圧加圧60分ないし150分蒸煮むよび1気圧加圧15分ないし90分蒸煮を行ない, 骨の軟化状態をTensilon UTMおよびガラス棒圧迫により調べた.その結果0.7気圧100分あるいは1気圧加圧60分の蒸煮で鶏頭は充分な可食状態になることが認められた.2)上記条件で加圧蒸煮したブロイラー頭部ミンチの一般成分およびアミノ酸組成を常圧蒸煮ミンチのものと比較してもほとんど変化は認められない.3)1気圧加圧60分蒸煮の頭部ミンチを豚肉ソーセージ製造時に5〜6%添加しても結着性には影響がなく, 試食官能テストの結果, 無添加のものに比し遜色がないことが認められた.さらに鶏頭部はカルシウム, 燐の含量が多いので, その可食化ミンチの摂取は妊産婦, 授乳婦にとって無機栄養上有効と思われる.4)アミノ酸の相対的割合からみればブロイラー頭部の蒸煮ミンチは鶏肉に比し, アルギニン, プロリン, グリシン, アラニンが多く, リジン, アスパラギン酸, グルタミン酸, 含硫アミノ酸, イソロイシンは少ない.蒸煮ミンチのprotein scoreは51であった.5)頭部およびそのミンチを常圧および加圧下で熱水抽出を行ないフレーバーテストを行なったところ, 遊離アミノ酸含量や蛋白質含量が多い加圧熱水抽出液よりも常圧熱水抽出液が呈味は良好であった.加圧熱水抽出液の5'-イノシン酸および乳酸含量は常圧熱水抽出液のものより少なかった.常圧熱水抽出液はスープあるいは調理のベースとして良好であるのみならず, その凍結乾燥粉末は長期保存呈味料として良好である.6)ブロイラー頭部ミンチの熱水油出液にはタウリンが著しく多く, 次でグルタミン酸, アラニン, ロイシンが多く含まれる.ヒスチジン, アルギニンおよびアスパラギン酸含量は少なくシスチンはまったく含まれない.天然調味料のとりがらエキス, 牛肉および鯨肉エキスとアミノ酸の相対的割合を比較すれば, 頭部ミンチ抽出液のタウリン含量は著しく多く, グルタミン酸含量はかなり少ない.さらに数種のアミノ酸含量についても他のエキスとの間にかなりの相違が認められた.

The utilization of broiler's head as food materials was investigated, as the mince of broiler's head contained 53% of crude protein, 7.5% of calcium, 3% of phosphorus and about 3% of boiling-water extractable matter on the dry basis. 1) Canned broiler's head was heated in an autoclave under various conditions. After autoclaving, the breaking strength of the head was measured, using Tensilon UTM, and the eatable tenderness was judged by pressing the inner bone-part with a glass rod. It was either by autoclaving for 100 min., under the addition of 0.7 atm. pressure or by autoclaving for 60 min., under the addition of 1 atm. pressure that the eatable tenderness of the broiler's head was attained. 2) Differences were scarcely observed between the constitutional amino acids of the mince of head steamed in the atomosphere and those of the mince autoclaved to attain to the eatable tenderness. 3) Addition of the autoclaved head mince to the pork-sausage to the degree of 5〜6%, atmanufacturing, did not afford a bad effect to the binding capacity of meat and the taste. 4) In the comparison of the amount of amino acids in the autoclaved head mince and those in chicken meat, carried out on the basis of total amino acid, the amounts of arginine, proline, glycine and alanine were larger in the former, and those of lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, sulfur-containing amino acid and isoleucine were smaller. Especially, the differences between the amounts of glycine, proline and lysine in both foods were noticeable. Protein score of the mince of broiler's head was estimated to be 51. 5) The taste of hot water extracts from broiler's heads and the minces under various conditions were examined. The extract obtained by the ordinary boil was found to be a good base in cooking, and moreover, the lyophilized powder was looked upon as the taste substance worthy to preserve. 6) Comparing with the extract obtained by the ordinary boil, the extract obtained by autoclaving contained larger amount of protein and free amino acids, such as glutamic acid, glycine, alanine and taurine which are good taste substances, nevertheless, the ordinary boiled extract showed a better taste than the latter. On the other hand, 5'-inosinic acid and lactic acid amounts were less in the extract obtained by autoclaving than in the ordinary boiled extract. 7) In all of the free amino acids in each broiler's head extract, the amount of taurine was remarkably large, those of glutamic acid, alanine and leucine, comparatively large, and those of histidine, arginine and aspartic acid, small. No cystine was contained in each extract. As compared with the extracts of chicken bones, beef and whale meats, the broiler's head extract contained remarkably large amount of taurine, on total amino acid basis, and comparatively small amount of glutamic acid. Several amino acids contents of broiler's head extract other than these were irregularly different from those of other extracts.

収録刊行物

  • 鹿兒島大學農學部學術報告

    鹿兒島大學農學部學術報告 26, 179-187, 1976-03-20

    鹿児島大学

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110004993058
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00040603
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • 雑誌種別
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    04530845
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    1699399
  • NDL 刊行物分類
    PC5(畜産食品)
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZR6(科学技術--農林水産)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z18-250
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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