古代遺跡出土の動物骨に関する研究 : V.鹿児島県高橋貝塚出土骨の概要 A Study of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites : V. On the Animal Bones Excavated at Takahashi Shell-Mound, Kagoshima Prefecture
高橋貝塚出土の自然遺物, とくに陸棲哺乳類の骨を肉眼的ならびに計測学的に調査した.1.自然遺物の総重量は, 40963,0gで, そのうち, 陸棲哺乳類が全体の85.7%を占める.2.動物種や骨の種類を同定できたものは, 2811個の骨片で, それらはサル, ノウサギ, イヌ, タヌキ, アナグマ, テン, イノシシ, シカ, ウシ, ウマの5目10種である.3,出土骨片数は, イノシシでもっとも多く(60)%, ついでシカ(37%)であり, そのほかはわずか3%である, 4.骨の形状は, 各動物ともに現生のものにほとんど類似し, また, 骨の大きさは, シカ, イノシシ, ノウサギで, 現生種より幾分大きい傾向を示す.5.以上の観察から, 高橋貝塚を遺した人々は, イノシシ, シカをよく狩猟し, 食料としていたことが示唆された.
The purpose of this study is to make some investigations on the fauna as well as on the sorts of games in the ancient times, making use of the bone-remains excavated at the archaeological sites in the southern Kyushu, and to ascertain whether there is any difference between the morphological characteristics of the excavated bones and those of the living animal species. In the present paper, some morphological and osteometrical investigations were carried out on the animal bone-remains excavated, together with the earthen-wares belonging to the early stage of Yayoi period, at the Takahashi shell-mound. Of the total weight of the natural remains counting 40963.0 g, 35278.0 g was weighed in land mammals, 125.4 g in aves, 494.7 g in fishes, 4246.8 g in shellfishes and 818.1 g in other remains, respectively. By the morphological observations, 2811 pieces were identified to be the bones of animal species. The fauna of the land mammalian remains was noted to be composed of 10 species belonging to 5 orders. The species of those were as in the following : Macaca fuscata, Lepus brachyurus, Canis familiaris, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles, Martes melampus, Sus scrofa, Cervus nippon, Bos taurus and Equus caballus. In comparison of the bone-remains of Sus scrofa and Cervus nippon, those of Bos taurus and Equus caballus were the ones which were quite rarely observable in the sites of southern Kyushu. Basing on the number of the excavated bones, it was ascertained that the most abundant animal species was Sus scrofa (60%), the next being Cervus nippon (37%), followed by other miscellaneous sorts (3%), respectively. The large number of the excavated bones was noted to be composed of Ossa membri thoracici et pelvini (approximately 52% in total); Humerus, Scapula, Radius, Ossa metacarpi, Os femoris, Tibia and Ossa metatarsi. According to the morphological observations, it was noted that both in shape and in size almost no difference was shown between the excavated bones and those of the living animals, excepting the fact that the bones of Sus scrofa, Cervus nippon and Lepus brachyurus were apt to be larger than those of the living animals. However, the bone-remains of Bos taurus and Equus caballus were ascertained to be of the small sized type, observable in such species as Kuchinoshima wild-cattle and Tokara-pony, living nowadays. Basing on the above mentioned observations, it was found that the most important games at the early stage of Yayoi period in Satsuma peninsula were Sus scrofa and Cervus nippon.
鹿兒島大學農學部學術報告 34, 83-93, 1984-03-15