古代遺跡出土の動物骨に関する研究 : VI.鹿児島県麦之浦貝塚出土骨の概要 A Study of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites : VI. On the Animal Bones Excavated at Muginoura Shell-Mound, Kagoshima Prefecture
縄文後期の麦之浦貝塚出土の自然遺物, とくに哺乳類の出土骨を肉眼的ならびに計測学的に調査した.1.自然遺物の総重量は, 72,174.2g(貝類を除く)で, そのうち哺乳類が99%を占めている.2.哺乳類の種や骨の種類を同定できたものは, 3,865個の骨片で, それらはニホンザル, ムササビ, ネズミ, ノウサギ, ツキノワグマ, オオカミ, イヌ, タヌキ, アナグマ, カワウソ, テン, イタチ, アシカ, イノシシ, シカ, カモシカ, ウマ, イルカおよびクジラの7目19種である.これらのうち, 出土骨片数の多いものは, イノシシ(2,414個), シカ(1,310個)で全体の89%を占め, ほかのものはわずか11%である.3.骨の形状は, 各動物ともに現生のものとほとんど差異はなく, また, 骨の大きさは, イノシシ, シカ, タヌキ, アナグマ, ノウサギで, 現生のものより大きい.4.以上の観察から, 麦之浦貝塚を遺した人々は, イノシシ, シカを中心に狩猟していたことが示唆され, また, オオカミ, ツキノワグマ, カワウソなどの出土例は, 動物地理学上貴重な資料となるであろう.
The purpose of this study is to get some informations on the fauna and the game-sorts in the ancient age, basing on the investigations carried out on the bone-remains of archaeological sites in the Southern Kyushu, ascertaining whether there is any difference between the morphological characteristics of the excavated bones and those of the living animal species. In the present paper, morphological and osteometrical investigations were executed on a large amount of animal bone-remains excavated together with the earthen-wares of the late stage of Jomon period at Muginoura shell-mound. The total weight of natural remains, excepting those of the shellfishes, was 72,174.2 g ; 71,451.0 g in mammals, 47.2 g in aves and 676.0 g in other remains, respectively. By the morphological observations, 3,865 pieces were identified as bones of mammalian species. The fauna of the mammalian remains was noted to be composed of 19 species belonging to 7 orders. The species of those were as in the following : Macaca fuscata, Petaurista leucogenys, Muridae sp., Lepus brachyurus, Selenarctos thibetanus, Canis lupus, Canis familiaris, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles, Lutra lutra, Martes melampus, Mustela sibirica, Zalophus sp., Sus scrofa, Cervus nippon, Capricornis crispus, Equus caballus, Delphinidae sp. and Cetacea sp.. Based on the number of the excavated bone pieces, it was ascertained that the most abundant animal species was Sus scrofa (55%), the next being Cervus nippon (34%), and the other animals were 11% of the total number. In comparison with the bone-remains of Sus scrofa and Cervus nippon, it was ascertained that those of Canis lupus, Selenarctos thibetanus, Capricornis crispus and Lutra lutra were quite rarely observable ones in the sites of Southern Kyushu. The excavated bones were 27.3% in Cranium, 26.3% in Ossa trunci, 20.8% in Ossa membri thoracici and 25.7% in Ossa membri pelvini, respectively. The large number of Ossa membri was composed of Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Os coxae, Os femoris, Tibia and Ossa metatarsi. According to the morphological observations, it was noted that both in shape and in size almost no difference was shown between the excavated bones and those of the living animals, excepting the fact that the bones of Sus scrofa, Cervus nippon, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles and Lepus brachyurus showed a tendency to be larger than those of the living animals. Based on those observations, it was found that in the late stage of Jomon period the land mammals of 16 or more species inhabited Satsuma area, Kagoshima prefecture, and that the most important games at these stages were Sus scrofa and Cervus nippon.
鹿兒島大學農學部學術報告 37, 105-113, 1987-03-16