縄文後期の草野貝塚出土の哺乳類遺体 Mammalian Remains from Kusano Shell-Mound of the Late Stage of Jomon Period
縄文後期の草野貝塚出土の哺乳類の骨を肉眼的および計測学的に検索し, 動物種や骨の種類を明らかにした.1.自然遺物の総重量は, 157.843kg(貝類を除く)で, そのうち哺乳類が152.983kgで, 全体の96.9%を占めている.2.哺乳類の種や骨の種類を同定できたものは, 16,323個の骨片で, それらはニホンザル, ムササビ, ネズミ, ノウサギ, オオカミ, イヌ, タヌキ, アナグマ, カワウソ, テン, イタチ, イノシシ, シカ, カモシカ, イルカおよびクジラの6目16種である.これらのうちイノシシ(11,590個), シカ(4,155個)が全体の96.5%を占める.3.骨の形状は, 各動物ともに現生のものとほとんど差はないが, 大きさは出土骨の方が幾分大きい.4.以上の観察から, 草野貝塚を遺した人々は, イノシシ, シカを中心に狩猟していたことが示唆され, また, オオカミ, カワウソなどの出土は, 当時の動物相を知る上に貴重な資料である.
By using the morphological and morphometrical methods, at the Kusano shell-mound in Kagoshima city, examinations were carried out on the faunal remains excavated together with the earthenwares belonging to the late stage of Jomon period. 1. Excepting that of the shellfish, the total weight of the faunal remains was counted to be 157.843 kg ; of which the weight of 152.983 kg was in mammals, that of 4.860 kg in other animals. 2. By morphological observations, 16,323 pieces of bone were identified to be the mammalian species bones. The faunal of the mammalian remains was ascertained to be composed of 16 species belonging to 6 orders. They were as in the following : Macaca fuscata, Lepus brachyurus, Petaurista leucogenys, Muridae, Canis lupus, Canis familiaris, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles, Lutra lutra, Martes melanpus, Mustela sibirica, Sus scrofa, Cervus nippon, Capricornis crispus, Delphinidae and Cetacea. 3. Based on the specified number of the excavated pieces of bone, it was ascertained that the most abundant animal species was Sus scrofa (71.0%), the next being Cervus nippon (25.5%), other animals being 3.5% of the total number. According to the morphological observations, it was ascertained that concerning 'shape' there was no difference between the excavated bones and those of the living animals ; however, concerning 'size' the excavated bones were apt to be larger than those of the living animals. 4. Based on those observations, it was fixed that in the late stage of Jomon period, the most imortant games were Sus scrofa and Cervus nippon. In the site of the Southern Kyushu, observations of the bone-remains of Canis lupus, Lutra lutra and Capricornis crispus were quite rare, therefore, were regarded as valuable ones.
鹿兒島大學農學部學術報告 42, 19-27, 1992-03-30