鹿児島の縄文, 弥生遺跡出土の動物遺体 Faunal Remains from Jomon and Yayoi Archaeological Sites in Kagoshima
鹿児島の縄文46,弥生22遺跡の動物遺体の出土状況を調査し, そのうち31遺跡の哺乳類遺体について, 肉眼的ならびに計測学的に検索し, 出土動物種を明らかにした.1.出土した動物遺体は, 哺乳類, 鳥類, 爬虫類, 両生類, 魚類, 甲殻類および貝類のものであり, 貝類, 哺乳類の出土した遺跡が最も多く, 両生類は少ない.地域別では薩摩半島が28ヵ所で最も多く, 次いで南西諸島の22ヵ所である.時期別では, 縄文後, 晩期が40ヵ所で最も多く, 弥生が22ヵ所である.2.動物種の同定された哺乳類遺体は, モグラ, コウモリ, サル, ノウサギ, アマミノクロウサギ, ムササビ, ネズミ, ツキノワグマ, オオカミ, イヌ, タヌキ, アナグマ, カワウソ, テン, イタチ, オオヤマネコ, イエネコ, アシカ, イノシシ, シカ, カモシカ, ウシ, ウマ, クジラ, イルカおよびジュゴンの10目26種のものである.これらのうちイノシシ, シカが全体の97%(出土骨片数)を占め, 当時の鹿児島の狩猟獣の中心であったことが示唆された.なお, ウシ, ウマ, イエネコは同時代のものかは疑問視される.3.イノシシは県下の全遺跡で検出されたが, 南西諸島のものは県本土のものとは形状が異なり小型である.また, 南西諸島の遺跡からは, シカ, サル, タヌキ, アナグマなどの出土例はなく, トカラ海峡を境にすでに縄文時代から, 哺乳動物相が異なっていたことが示唆された.
On the 46 Jomon and 22 Yayoi sites in Kagoshima Prefecture, the excavation-states were examined to ascertain the faunal remains. And by using the morphological and osteometrical methods, the mammalian remains excavated out of 31 sites were identified to be composed of animal species and of some sorts of bone. The faunal remains consisted of the skeletons of mammalia, birds, reptiles, amphibia, fishes, and the remains of scrustacea and shellfishes. The number of sites out of which the remains of shellfishes and mammalia were excavated was largest, but that of the remains of amphibia was quite small. Among the excavation-areas, 28 sites were confirmed in Satsuma peninsula, 9 sites in Osumi peninsula, 9 sites in Satsunan island and 22 sites in Nansei island, respectively. The excavation-sites were periodically assorted as in the following : 40 sites were ascertained to have belonged to the period from the late to the final Jomon, 22 sites, to that from Yayoi period and 4 sites, to the early stage of Jomon period, respectively. By morphological observations, the excavated bones were identified as the bones of mammalian species. And those mammalian remains were ascertained to be composed of 26 species belonging to 10 orders : Mogura wogura, Peteropus dasymallus, Macaca fuscata, Lepus brachyurus, Pentalagus furnessi, Petaurista leucogenys, Muridae, Selenarctos tibetanus, Canis lupus, Canis familiaris, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles, Lutra lutra, Martes melampus, Mustera sibilica, Lynx lynx, Felis domestica, Zalophus, Sus scrofa, Cervus nippon, Capricornis crispus, Bos taurus, Equus caballus, Cetacea, Delphinidae and Dugonidae. In the sites of Kyushu, the remains of Canis lupus, Selenarctos tibetanus, Lynx lynx and Lutra lutra were extremely rare ones to be observed. Moreover, it was left unclarified whether the remains of Bos taurus, Equus caballus and Felis domestica belonged to the same period as the other animal remains. The excavation-sites of Sus scrofa covered all the sites in Kagoshima, but the bone-shapes of Sus scrofa excavated from the Nansei-island differed from those out of the Kagoshima mainland, being small sized ones resembling those of the present Sus scrofa riukiuanus. Therefore, it was also observed that the remains of Cervus nippon, Nyctereutes procyonoides, Meles meles, Martes melampus etc. were not excavated in the sites of the Nansei-island. Based on these confirmed observations, it was suggested that in the Nansei-island there had been a unique fauna already at the beginning of the Jomon period, being isolated by Tokara-strait (Watse's line), and that in South Kyushu Sus scrofa and Cervus nippon were the most important target of hunting for our ancestors.
鹿兒島大學農學部學術報告 43, 19-24, 1993-03-31