明治維新の際, 日本の医療体制に何がおこったか : 西洋医学選択の道のり [in Japanese] What Happened in Our Medical Care System on Meiji Restoration : The Road to Our Adoption of Western Medicine [in Japanese]
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なお攘夷の激しい維新当初より, 京都官軍病院にイギリス公使館医を医師として招聘し, ついで御所への西洋医学の導入を認め, 典薬寮医師として蘭方医を採用し, 元年末には医学校である大学東校を開校し, 近い将来での医師開業試験の実施を布達した。明治新政府は, わが国の医学として, 初めて, 積極的に西洋医学を受容した。漢方医の影響下にあった旧幕府とは, 極めて対照的である。戊辰戦争で貢献した英国公使館医は, 大学東校の病院長兼医学教師に就任した。政府内には, 従来のオランダ医学に代わって, わが医学の教師役はイギリス医学がとの雰囲気があった。一方長崎医学校で学んだ若い蘭方医達は, 世界の医学界をリードしているとして, ドイツ医学のわが国への導入を提案した。厳しい討議のすえ, ドイツ人医学教師の招聘が決定された。初代のミュルレルは, 伝統的医学教育に固執する日本人教師らの抵抗を抑え, 厳しく, 徹底的に医学校を改革した。医学生は, 予科3年, 本科5年に亘り, 基礎科学, 基礎医学, 臨床を, ドイツ人教師によりドイツ語で教育された。極めて特異な事であったが, わが国初の医制を作り上げるためには欠くべからざる事であった。
At very beginning of Meiji Restoration when it was still under intensive anti-foreigner moves, the new government invited a medical staff of the English legation to the government military hospital in Kyoto as a medical adviser, and they admitted to accept the Western medicine as an official in the imperial palace, and further, employed a doctor trained in Netherlands Medicine “Ranpou-i” as a medical stuff in the palace for the first time. At the end of the first year of the Restoration, they opened a new medial school and declared that every medical doctor should take a national examination before they open their offices. Their attitude for the Western Medicine was so active to accept it and was a quite contrast to those of old Tokugawa government. The legation doctor was also accepted as the director of hospital and teacher of the medical school, and it was thought that the medicine in Japan will be under the influence of England instead of the Netherlands in future. Two young Ranpou-i who were tarined in both of Nagasaki and Sakura, and nominated as the attendants for the medical school strongly propoused based on their experience in medical tarining that the teacher of future medicine in Japan should be German because of their highest medical quality in the world. After their heavy disputes with the Government stuffs who were supporters for English Medicine, it was finally accepted to invite two German medical doctors as the teachers of the medical school. The German doctors moved so actively to renovate the Japanese medical education, eliminating Japanese educational tradition completely. Japanese medical students were educated and tarined by German teachers with German language from the levels of a fundamental science to clinical medicines. It was so drastic. But it was needed to establish the medical system in Japan for the first time.
- Kampo Medicine
Kampo Medicine 57(6), 757-767, 2006-11-20
The Japan Society for Oriental Medicine