巡拝路からみた霊場の構造とその変容について [in Japanese] Structure of local sacred place and its change on the pilgrimage way [in Japanese]
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In this research,the field investigation of "the Saigoku sacred place","the Bando sacred place",and the sacred places located around them was done.Moreover,the "fudasho" and the pilgrimage road were analyzed statistically.In addition,the clarification of the character of the sacred place was tried in consideration of the historical details of the sacred place establishment.The results are as follows.1）There is a layered structure of loops that surrounds Kamakura in the pilgrimage road of the Bando sacred place.Moreover,around the Bando sacred place,the local sacred place that connected with it appeared.2）In Edo most of the sacred places were established in the recent age.The buddhist temples in the city part moved frequently and some pilgrimage routes changed. Later,regional sacred places were established adjacent to early sacred places.3）The pilgrimage road shows a radial pattern in the Saigoku sacred place.Fudasho's are overcrowded around Kyoto,and many are in Kumano to the south and in the capital surroundings to the north.The sacred place is composed of these three regions.4）Among the sacred places of Kyoto,there are some one that overlapped the Saigoku sacred place and some that connected to the Shikoku sacred place.The different influences of the buddhist temple sects are seen there.5）There is a difference in Fudasho group of the Shikoku sacred place among the regions of Awa,Tosa,Iyo,and Sanuki.Such regional fudasho groups were collected,and a combined sacred place was formed.6）The pilgrimage is seen in any religion.In Japan,there is a trait in the pilgrimage of the sacred place that includes not only a specific sacred point but also many combined sacred points.7）While the forest training developed into the peak round in "the Sanmon group of Tendai sect",pilgrimage of the sacred points in various places was developed in "the Jimon group of Tendai sect" and it arrived at the establishment of "Kannon" sacred place like the Saigoku one.8）As the syncretism of religion advanced after the Middle Ages,"the Hijiri" and itinerant priests pilgrimaged around the country,and the sacred place became popular with the people.Moreover,the people went on a pilgrimage,and the sacred place was straightened.9）In recent times,a gradual and integrated style such as "the Shikoku sacred place" appeared,and it was brought to various places by the people's initiations,and many local sacred places were established.10）On the other hand,climbing of holy mountains by "Ko" became popular around the rural farm village,and it had developed in a different style from that of the pilgrimage of a sacred place.11）Sacred places have various religious characters and the pilgrimage has various purposes.Sacred places have conflicting characters in themselves.There are many kinds of syncretism and transformations in the sacred place.
- Memoirs of the Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama
Memoirs of the Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama 1(1), 201-220, 2006