巡拝路からみた霊場の構造とその変容について  [in Japanese] Structure of local sacred place and its change on the pilgrimage way  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

地域に多様な内容,さまざまな規模の霊場がみられる。それらの霊場の位置は,隣接し,重畳する。あるいは包含されこともあり,同じ札所が広域の大霊場に属すると同時に,地域の小霊場にも属する。また寺院境内に三十三や八十八の霊場が設けられ,さらに堂内に三十三観音などが安置されることも多い。こうしたネスティングないしは曼荼羅のような階層構造により,霊場は相互に結合,連接している。ただし霊場規模の大小は新旧や上下によるとは限らないなど,霊場間の関係は複雑である。本稿ではまず坂東,西国,四国とその周辺の霊場について,その実態を明らかにする。さらに各霊場の札所の位置に,クラスター分析を援用して,札所群を抽出するなどにより,巡拝路の形態を明らかにする。さらに霊場がもつ性格について,その変遷に注目しつつ,分析することを試みる。

In this research,the field investigation of "the Saigoku sacred place","the Bando sacred place",and the sacred places located around them was done.Moreover,the "fudasho" and the pilgrimage road were analyzed statistically.In addition,the clarification of the character of the sacred place was tried in consideration of the historical details of the sacred place establishment.The results are as follows.1)There is a layered structure of loops that surrounds Kamakura in the pilgrimage road of the Bando sacred place.Moreover,around the Bando sacred place,the local sacred place that connected with it appeared.2)In Edo most of the sacred places were established in the recent age.The buddhist temples in the city part moved frequently and some pilgrimage routes changed. Later,regional sacred places were established adjacent to early sacred places.3)The pilgrimage road shows a radial pattern in the Saigoku sacred place.Fudasho's are overcrowded around Kyoto,and many are in Kumano to the south and in the capital surroundings to the north.The sacred place is composed of these three regions.4)Among the sacred places of Kyoto,there are some one that overlapped the Saigoku sacred place and some that connected to the Shikoku sacred place.The different influences of the buddhist temple sects are seen there.5)There is a difference in Fudasho group of the Shikoku sacred place among the regions of Awa,Tosa,Iyo,and Sanuki.Such regional fudasho groups were collected,and a combined sacred place was formed.6)The pilgrimage is seen in any religion.In Japan,there is a trait in the pilgrimage of the sacred place that includes not only a specific sacred point but also many combined sacred points.7)While the forest training developed into the peak round in "the Sanmon group of Tendai sect",pilgrimage of the sacred points in various places was developed in "the Jimon group of Tendai sect" and it arrived at the establishment of "Kannon" sacred place like the Saigoku one.8)As the syncretism of religion advanced after the Middle Ages,"the Hijiri" and itinerant priests pilgrimaged around the country,and the sacred place became popular with the people.Moreover,the people went on a pilgrimage,and the sacred place was straightened.9)In recent times,a gradual and integrated style such as "the Shikoku sacred place" appeared,and it was brought to various places by the people's initiations,and many local sacred places were established.10)On the other hand,climbing of holy mountains by "Ko" became popular around the rural farm village,and it had developed in a different style from that of the pilgrimage of a sacred place.11)Sacred places have various religious characters and the pilgrimage has various purposes.Sacred places have conflicting characters in themselves.There are many kinds of syncretism and transformations in the sacred place.

Journal

  • Memoirs of the Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama

    Memoirs of the Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama 1(1), 201-220, 2006

    Toyama University

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110005421896
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA12181167
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    1881316X
  • NDL Article ID
    8694919
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZV1(一般学術誌--一般学術誌・大学紀要)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-S250
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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