理科授業の学習環境のデザイン--観察・実験による振り子の概念学習を事例として  [in Japanese] Designing a Learning Environment for Science Education : GIsML and the Inclusive Support Tool for Understanding the Motion of Swinging Pendulums(Applied Field Research)  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本研究は,小学5年生理科での振り子の学習単元において,「児童が振り子の運動を測定・集計する際にその手続きを支援する学習ツール」と学習者が協同で能動的に学習に取り組む活動形態としての"GIsML"(Palincsar et al.,2000)を組み合わせた学習環境をデザインし,これらの学習環境下で生成された観察・実験の談話過程を分析した。分析の結果,振り子の各課題の困難度の違いによって,異なる説明活動が先行概念の変化を促す要因として深く関与していることが示唆された:(1)理解の困難度が低い課題(ひもの長さ)の場合,物理現象を『先行概念』と関連づける説明活動,(2)困難度が中程度の課題(おもりの重さ)の場合,納得がいくまで何度も観察・実験を繰り返す『反復性』,物理現象を数の領域へマッピングし『数学的関係』を用いて理解する説明活動,(3)困難度が高い課題(振れ幅の大きさ)の場合,シミュレーションを繰り返す過程で,何度も予測に立ち返り『予測精度』を上げながら理論を解釈し直す説明活動。さらに,(4)小集団における理論構築を踏まえた上で「クラス全体」の討論で理論を再構築する場において,他グループのデータや理論を照合する『社会的参照』,個別の理論を組織的に統合する教師の視点を受け入れる『情報の信頼性』の説明活動が生成された場合,振り子の全課題に対して科学的概念の変容が促される可能性が示唆された。

The aims of the present study were to propose a learning environment for understanding the motion of simple pendulums, and to identify discursive processes that facilitate conceptual change in learners. Participants were fifth graders (N=10 boys, 20 girls; average age 11.8 years) in an elementary school in Japan. Instruments used included Palincsar, Collins, Marano, & Magnusson's (2000) GIsML, and the present authors' Inclusive Support Tool for Understanding the Motion of Swinging Pendulums. The results indicated that the type of explanation that the pupils generated depended on the difficulty level of the task. With relatively easy tasks, the pupils' explanations tried to relate their observations in the experiment to their prior knowledge. With moderate level tasks, their explanations referred to replication of the experiment's results, and also included formal representations for principles of the motion of pendulums, mapping the results of the experiments onto a mathematical model. With relatively difficult tasks, the pupils' explanations referred to the precision of their observations having helped to coordinate their predictions and the results more rigorously. In the whole-class discussions introduced in the last phase of the unit, the most common explanations referred to other groups' data and hypotheses, or quoted reliable resources, such as the teacher or the textbook, as a framework for the pupils' integrated understanding.

Journal

  • The Japanese journal of educational psychology.

    The Japanese journal of educational psychology. 54(4), 558-571, 2006-12

    日本教育心理学会

Cited by:  2

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006152387
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00345837
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    00215015
  • NDL Article ID
    8598744
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF1(教育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-182
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  NDL-Digital 
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