関西若年層にみられる標準語形ジャナイ(カ)の使用  [in Japanese] Usage of the Standard Form -janai (ka) by Young Speakers of Kansai Dialect  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

関西若年層は,カジュアルな場面における方言談話でも標準語形ジャナイ(カ)を使用している。1970年代生まれの男女70人分の談話資料を分析した結果,ジャナイ(カ)が方言形チャウ(カ)・ヤンカと用法を分担する形で受容されていることが明らかとなった。関西若年層が用いるジャナイは名詞・ナ形容詞述語の否定形であり,<否定><同意要求>の用法を担っている。旧形式であるチャウ(カ)は<推測>の,ヤンカは<認識要求>の形式として,棲み分けの形でジャナイ(カ)と併存している。ジャナイ(カ)の受容は標準語との接触によって起きた変化だが,これは方言が標準語に取って代わられる共通語化の一過程ではなく,方言体系の再編成という変化のメカニズムによって説明されるものである。

This paper focuses on the acceptance of a standard form -janai(ka) by young native speakers of Kansai dialect. Based on the quantitative analysis of natural discourse data from 70 young speakers of Kansai dialect containing a total of 1,669 tokens of variants of -janai(ka), a functional classification of these variants reveals that the young Kansai speakers alternate -janai(ka) and its corresponding dialect forms such as -chau(kd) and -yan(ka) depending on their functions. Originally, the forms including -janai in Standard Japanese have various functions: first, -janai is used in a 'negative statement' which negates the proposition of a sentence ending with nominal predicates and da-ending adjectival predicates (e. g., genki-janai from genki-da 'be healthy'); second, -janai(ka) indicates the 'expectation of a hearer's agreement'; third, -njanai(ka) is used as a sentence-final expression indicating a speaker's conjecture; and finally, -janai(ka) is used as a sentence-final form intended to confirm the speaker's previous recognition. On the other hand, the paper has shown that the use of -janai(ka) by young Kansai speakers is mainly limited to negative statements and questions, while for the modal functions the dialect forms -chau(ka) and -yan(ka) are still often used. Thus, maintaining their own dialect forms, the speakers only accept the standard form for particular functions. As a result, the young speakers' Kansai dialect is found to differ systematically from both traditional Kansai dialect and Standard Japanese. This formation of a new Kansai dialect suggests a dialect change other than Standardization, characterized by a systematic reorganization incorporating both standard and dialect forms.

Journal

  • Studies in the Japanese Language

    Studies in the Japanese Language 1(2), 19-34, 2005

    The Society for Japanese Linguistics

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006218771
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11998386
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL Article ID
    7296239
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-M894
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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