文法化と借用 : 日本語における動詞の中止形を含んだ後置詞を例に(<特集>日本語における文法化・機能語化)  [in Japanese] Grammaticalization and Borrowing : Postpositions in Japanese Composed from Verbs in ren'yo or -te forms(<Special Issue>Grammaticalization in Japanese)  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

日本語の後置詞には動詞の中止形を含み,動詞から派生したと想定できるものがある。そのうちのヲモッテ,<原因>のニヨッテは文法化現象の例とされてきたが,それらは訓読語研究で漢文訓読との関連が指摘されてきたものでもある。それらが他言語からの借用なら,動詞からの意味変化として文法化理論から説明するには無理がある。本稿は,文法化研究が扱うヲモッテの多義性が借用かその一般化によるもので,上古の<道具>を表すモチ(テ)こそが動詞モツからの文法化の例であること,ニヨッテの文法化の前提とされてきた動詞の意味が漢文系資料に偏る一方,上古の和文系資料に存在していた動詞ヨル・<根拠>のニヨッテからの文法化が理論的に説明可能なことを検証し,文法化研究で誤った議論がされてきたことを指摘する。漢文訓読との関連が指摘される機能語は少なくないが,日本語における文法化研究では,借用現象を混同しないことが重要なことを主張する。

Some postpositions in Japanese include in their composition non-finite ren'yo forms or -te forms of verbs. We can assume that these postpositions are derived from verbs. In the field of grammaticalization, omotte and niyotte, which express cause, have been viewed as examples of grammaticalization from the verbs motsu 'to hold' and yoru 'to approach', respectively. However, based on studies of kanbun kundoku, the traditional reading of Chinese text using Japanese, it can be seen that these postpositions have relations with forms found in kanbun text (text heavily influenced by kanbun kundoku). If they are loan translations from Chinese, a foreign language, borrowed into Japanese through kanbun kundoku, then it is inappropriate to view these postpositions as examples of grammaticalization. Through historical research and analysis distinguishing between kanbun text and wabun, i.e. strictly Japanese, text, we can prove that 1. the several meanings of omotte found in Middle and later Japanese can be seen as borrowings, or extensions from borrowings. On the other hand, mochi(te) marking 'instrument' that we see from the ancient times but was subsequently lost is a true example of grammaticalization from the verb motsu; 2. One of the meanings of the verb yoru, 'be attributed to', which has been argued to be the basis of grammaticalization of niyotte, can not be found in wabun text in Old and Middle Japanese, which invalidates the proposed account. We conclude that when taking Japanese as the target of grammaticalization research, we should strictly distinguish the borrowing situation, in consideration of the complex and important influence Chinese has had on Japanese.

Journal

  • Studies in the Japanese Language

    Studies in the Japanese Language 1(3), 123-138, 2005

    The Society for Japanese Linguistics

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006218823
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11998386
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL Article ID
    7407518
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-M894
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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