証拠表示化する「と」と談話構造 : 頻度から見た文法化の層状的拡大  [in Japanese] The Evidential Marker to and Discourse-Syntactic Structures : A Frequency-based Approach to Grammaticalization  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Author(s)

Abstract

本稿では、日本語の補文標識「と」が証拠表示化する談話的基盤を文法化の観点から考察する。本稿の中心点は以下の3点である。a.文法化には段階性があり、広範なデータベースに基づく具体的頻度によりそれを裏付ける点。b.補文標識「と」が補文動詞を省略して証拠表示化するのは特定の談話構造に起因している点。c.その文法化を特徴付ける談話構造は複数存在し、それぞれの構造的特徴に動機付けられ、頻度として中心的なものから頻度として周辺的なものへと層状の広がりを見せている点。言語変化の層状性は一定の談話構造に起因するものであり、繰り返し生起する談話的基盤に裏付けられたものである。現在進行中の文法化を考察するには具体的頻度の提示が必須であり、具体的頻度の提示は文法化を動機付ける談話的基盤の尺度となる。

This study addresses the elision of eomplement-taking predicates (CTPs) in Japanese interview discourse, and examines the discourse-syntactic contexts which facilitate the elision. A frequency-based approach is used to analyze this ellipsis and related issues concerning CTP. Japanese is regarded as an ideal SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) language in the sense that the language maintains the order of dependent-head consistently with respect to all types of constituents. Grammatical subjects are often unexpressed, and even CTPs are omitted in unplanned discourse, leaving only the complementizer/quotation marker to in the clause. In interview discourse, the overall frequency of CTP elision is relatively low (32.1%); however, when adverbial clauses precede to-marked clauses, the elision of CTP increases. Of the four types of adverbial clauses found in the database (cause/reason, concessive, conditional and temporal clauses), cause/reason and concessive clauses most frequently co-occur with to-marked clauses; 75.2% of these cause/reason and concessive clauses elide CTP. Furthermore, when the preceding adverbial clause contains an embedded clause with to and an overt verb of thinking or saying, the following to-marked clause shows an even higher rate of CTP elision. In addition to these discourse-syntactic properties, to-marked clauses overwhelmingly (more than 90%) mark the speaker's (i.e. 1^<st> person) reproduction of his/her own utterance or thought in the past, expressing the speaker's attitude towards the content of the to-marked clause. It follows from these observations that the elision of CTP has a consistent relation to discourse-syntactic structure and that to functions as an evidential, indicating relatively firm sources.

Journal

  • Studies in the Japanese Language

    Studies in the Japanese Language 1(4), 47-60, 2005

    The Society for Japanese Linguistics

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006218851
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11998386
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL Article ID
    7677380
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-M894
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
Page Top