もの/語りとしての運命 : ガーナの卜占アファにおける呪術的世界の構成 Destiny as Story, Destiny as Object : Story Telling and Ritual in Afa Divination in Southern Ghana

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本論の目的は、ガーナのエウェ民族によって行われている卜占アファを対象に、地域社会を越えて利用されている卜占の特徴を明らかにするとともに、卜占と儀礼を通して創出される多声的な語りと重層的な現実構成の可能性を考察することである。サハラ以南アフリカの卜占を対象とする先行研究の多くは、共同体における社会秩序の再生産や合意形成といった卜占の社会政治的機能を指摘してきた。一方、卜占を利用する人々の主体性に焦点を当て、卜占の参与者を能動的なエージェントとしてとらえる視点が提起されている。社会構造に規定された存在としての人間像を生産してきた構造機能主義的な卜占研究に対して、後者の研究は人々の経験や能動的な行為に焦点を当て、構造に対する個人の戦略や選択の意義を明らかにした。しかしこのような視点は構造に対峠する個人の主体性を強調するあまり、託宣をはじめとする特殊な発話や行為の様式を通してうみだされる個人の意図を超えたエージェンシーや多元的な現実構成の可能性さえも、既存の社会内部における個人の選択や戦略に従属するものとして矮小化してしまう危険性をもつ。本論では、アファの卜占と儀礼を微視的に分析し、占師と依頼者の共同作業を通して多声的な物語りと超常的なエージェンシーが発現する過程を検討する。占いの過程では、依頼者の日常的な社会関係は託宣が開示する神話的/呪術的な現実の位相の中に位置づけなおされるとともに、語り手である依頼者の人称は多重性を帯びる。また、儀礼の過程では身体的な演技と祭祀要素の操作を通して、依頼者の苦難と運命は儀礼のエージェントとしての「もの」に依託される。II章では、アファ祭祀の一般的特徴を概観し、調査地の社を紹介する。III章では、卜占の対話と儀礼を分析し、物語りの創出と供犠の施行を通して依頼者が日常的な現実認識を脱却する過程を考察する。

<p>In this article, I will try to analyze the characteristics of Afa divination practiced by the Ewe in a migrant society in the Eastern Region of the Republic of Ghana. The majority of earlier studies on divination in sub-Saharan Africa have pointed out the sociopolitical functions of divination, such as legitimating the social order and creating consensus in society. On the other hand, the new trend - which can be called the interactive approach - focuses on divination as a practice that establishes dialectic forms within social and cultural realities. Unlike the structural-functionalist approaches, the interactive approach regards the participants of divination as active agents, and analyzes divination as a vehicle for articulation and negotiation of meanings and categorizations of social reality. Such interactive studies are important, as they contribute to the exploration of the role of individual interaction and human agency in divinatory processes. At the same time, those arguments are dangerous, in that they may reduce the significance of impersonal authoritative meaning and external agencies beyond human intention - which can be created or activated through the divinatory practice - to merely a precondition for people to act decisively in their everyday social lives. This article tries to explore the creative aspect of Afa, which generates multi-vocal stories and pluralistic realities through divination and ritual performance. In the first part, I analyze dialogues between an Afa diviner and clients at an Afa shrine located in Southeastern Ghana. Through the consultation process, the diviner and his client constitute a story based on both the personal experience of the client and the allegories and myths narrated by the diviner. In the second part, I analyze the ritual following the divination. The diviner and his client try to modify the sequence of the story that symbolizes the 'destiny (se)' of the client, by manipulating magical objects and making sacrifices. Through that whole process, they create multivocal utterances and constitute the magical reality in which external agents such as sacrifices, mythical figures and deities can affect the destiny of the client. In Chapter 1, I begin with an examination of earlier studies on divination, in order to show the theoretical point of my study. In Chapter 2, I first show the outline of Afa divination, and then introduce the life story of the Afa diviners. I conducted fieldwork in an Akan-based migrant society called Densuso, located in Akyem Abuakwa in the Eastern Region. From the end of the 19th century a large number of the cocoa farmers and farm workers emigrated to Akyem Abuakwa, where they built new towns and villages. The majority of the immigrant cocoa farmers were the matrilineal Akan and the patrilineal Guan from the Akuapim ridge, while most of the farm workers were the Ewe from the Volta Region and Togo. As a result of that immigration process, various ethnic groups, such as the Akan, Guan, Adangme and Ewe, occupy this area today. An Ewe diviner called Tebe Kpakpo from Southern Togo built an Afa shrine in Densuso around 1950. Tebe and his son Kwasi perform divination and ritual as diviner-priest (toboko) and main diviner (boko) at this shrine. Since its foundation, this shrine has attracted a large number of clients from various areas in the country. The main activities at the Afa shrine are consultation and rituals for clients. The diviner casts 16 nutshell pieces (kpele) to inquire into the problems of his client. In the ritual following the divination, the diviner and his client often make sacrifices to get the client out of his/her critical situation. In Chapter 3, I first introduce the technique of Afa divination. Secondly, I analyze the dialogues between the diviner and the client based on my own participant observation. Through consultation, the diviner tries to explore the heart of his</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

収録刊行物

  • 文化人類学

    文化人類学 70(1), 21-46, 2005

    日本文化人類学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110006251156
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11958949
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    7419443
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-240
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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