精霊の流通 : ガーナ南部における宗教祭祀の刷新と遠隔地交易 Spirits in Circulation : Long-Distance Trade and Religious Innovation in Southern Ghana

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本論の目的は、西アフリカにおける遠隔地交易と精霊祭祀の流通に焦点を当て、広域にわたる諸民族の移動と交渉と、宗教実践の刷新との歴史的関係を検討することである。アフリカの宗教実践を主題とする近年の人類学的研究の多くは、アフリカ諸社会における新たな宗教実践の発展を植民地化と近代化の影響に対する抵抗であり、独自の歴史意識の再構築として論じている。これらの議論では西欧中心の覇権的な権力システムの存在を前提とし、かつ西欧世界との接触を基点としてアフリカ社会の宗教変容を分析しているために、前植民地期を含むアフリカ社会の重層的な構成や、集団と個々人の越境的な移動と交渉に伴う宗教実践の革新についての検討が捨象されている。本論は、西アフリカの内陸サバンナ地域と南部森林地帯とを結ぶ遠隔地交易に焦点を当て、19世紀以降のガーナ南部における呪術的要素の流通と精霊祭祀の形成過程を検討する。第II章では南部の地域共同体と結びついた神霊祭祀と、内陸部に起源をもち機動力に富む精霊祭祀の対照的特徴を示すとともに、イスラーム的要素をはじめ精霊祭祀の包含する複合性を明らかにする。第III章では、交易・戦闘・開拓等の越境的な諸事業と結びついた宗教実践の刷新と、新たな伝統の創出を含む宗教祭祀間の接合の歴史を考察する。以上の検討から本論は、西アフリカの広域にわたる諸民族間の交渉と移動に伴い、恒常的に混淆と刷新を重ねてきた宗教実践の革新性と越境性を提示する。

<p>This article investigates the correlation between religious innovations and trans-regional communications in West Africa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Most of the recent studies on religious movements in Sub-Saharan Africa have explained these movements as responses to, or symbolic resistance against, the pressure of colonialism and modernization. The main problem with these arguments is that they often assume that local communities were in a harmonious or static state in pre-colonial Africa so that the invasion by Western colonial forces can be set as the "zero point" of socio-religious change for these local communities. But in order to understand the more active or innovative aspects of African religion, it is essential to consider the historical movements and communications of people that crossed borders, which stimulated the continual transformation of indigenous religion. From this point of view, this article investigates the expansion and circulation of savanna-originated spirits or suman shrines in Southern Ghana in relation to the cola trade between Northern and Southern Ghana. The fieldwork for this study was conducted mainly in the Akan based migrant society in the Eastern region and the Northern region of the Republic of Ghana. In Chapter 2, I analyze the contrastive characters of the traditional goddess or obosombaa called Akonodi among Guan and Akan societies in the Eastern region and of one of new spirits or suman called Tigare that originated in the Northern region. Here I note that Akonodi and other traditional gods are basically connected to Southern local communities, their political systems and their ancestor worship, and I contrast that savanna-originated spirits have more independent and mobile characters. Moreover, these new spirits often include North-originated, Islamic characters which are distinguishable especially by the instruments, clothes and languages people use during spirit possession. Also I point out that although there are distinctive differences between these traditional gods and new spirits, they have many similarities in the form of worship and use of symbols. Then, why are these traditional gods and new spirits so different in their origins and basic characters and, at the same time, similar in ritualistic or symbolic aspects? In Chapter 3, I examine the history of wide-ranged enterprises which flourished from the nineteenth century to the twentieth century in Ghana. I focus mainly on the long distance trade between Akan and Hausa traders, the warfare and expansion of the Ashanti Empire, and the migration of cocoa farmers from the Akwapim ridge westward. In order to examine the relation between these political and economic enterprises and the religious movements beyond ethnic and regional boundaries, I first investigate the expansion of new suman or magical elements like Islamic charms and medicines among Akan societies through the markets of long-distance traders and new migrant societies. This process of introduction and expansion of the Islamic magical elements throughout the area was stimulated mainly by the merchants and entrepreneurs who were very active in the periphery of the regional political realm. Second, I investigate the transformation process of suman from savanna-originated magical elements into new forms of personalized Islamic spirits like Tigare or Tongo. This creative transformation of suman was accomplished not only by the scarcity value and the advantage of these new mobile magical elements in comparison to the stable traditional gods, but by assimilation to the authorized symbols and traditional forms of worship in Southern societies. In other words, the process shows the way in which these suman established an original status as new objects of worship in Southern societies through a bonding together with and, yet, differentiation from the traditional gods and ancestor worship. From the</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

収録刊行物

  • 民族學研究

    民族學研究 68(2), 189-213, 2003

    日本文化人類学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110006251523
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00408358
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    00215023
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    7112612
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-240
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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