準体助詞の全国分布とその成立経緯 A Historical Study of Quasi-nominal particles in Japanese Dialects

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準体助詞には,本州ノ,九州ト,土佐・北陸・山陰ガ,新潟県ガン,山形県ナ等がある。地理学的には連体格から発達したノ・ガが新・古の関係,ト・ナは地域性が強くて更に古く,格助詞トとナリに由来すると推定した。文献からは,ノは中央語である近畿で近世初期には発達したとされ,恐らく江戸も同じ。一方,新潟・土佐・九州の近世方言文献によれば,他の形式もこれに遅れない時期に独自に発達したと考えた。その分布要因は,ノ・ガの尊卑表現と連体格/主格の構文分担機能とが関連し,ガは周辺地域で前者が,ノは中央地域で後者が優位の時期に発達し近隣へ伝播したと推測した。発展的用法であるノニ・ノデ・ノダ等の論理的表現は中央語が先かと思われ,地方語との差異も見られる。

This paper studies the development of quasi-nominal particles such as no, ga, gan, to and na in Japanese dialects, through an analysis of language maps and dialectal data from the past. A survey of some of the language maps in Grammar Atlas of Japanese Dialects shows that no is widely found in central Japan, ga in some outer areas like Hokuriku and the southern part of Shikoku, gan in Niigata, na on the Japan Sea side of Tohoku and to in Kyushu. This distribution indicates that no is new and that ga and gan are relatively old; to and na seem to be unique to their respective districts. In the history of Standard Japanese, it is said that (1) as case particles, ga hosts a noun which is familiar to the speaker and no hosts one not familiar, (2) grammatical differences between the two have gradually become dominant since the Muromachi era. Ga functions as nominative case, no as genitive case; and (3) quasi-nominal particles ga and no developed from these case functions at the beginning of the Edo era. Based on dialectal data in the Edo era we can say that the same kinds of quasinominal particles are already found in those areas mentioned above. This developed in parallel with those of Standard Japanese. Thus, ga in the outer areas is derived from its use as a case particle almost independently of Standard Japanese when (3) is realized under the condition of (1), no in the central area occurred when (3) is realized under the condition of (2). Gan in Niigata is a combined form of ga and no. To in Kyushu is possibly derived from its use of a case particle. Na is supposed to derive from the auxiliary verb nari to express assertion.

収録刊行物

  • 日本語の研究

    日本語の研究 2(4), 61-75, 2006

    日本語学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110006273541
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11998386
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    8530595
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z71-M894
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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