石綿の近隣曝露と中皮腫罹患リスク  [in Japanese] Risk of developing mesothelioma due to neighborhood exposure to asbestos  [in Japanese]

Author(s)

    • 熊谷 信三 KUMAGAI Shinji
    • 大阪府立公衆衛生研究所生活衛生課 Department of Environmental Health, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health
    • 車谷 典男 KURUMATANI Norio
    • 奈良県立医科大学地域健康医学教室 Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine

Abstract

石綿曝露には職業性曝露と非職業性曝露があり,さらに後者は傍職業性曝露,近隣曝露,真の環境曝露に分類される.したがって,近隣曝露の影響を明らかにするためには,他の曝露の影響を除外する必要がある.本論文では,近隣曝露と中皮腫罹患の関連性を検討した疫学調査をレビューした.南アフリカのクロシドライト鉱山およびカナダのクリソタイル鉱山の研究では職業性曝露を除外していない.オーストラリアのクロシドライト鉱山および米国の石綿製品製造工場の研究では非職業性曝露による中皮腫罹患リスクを評価できていると考えられるが,家族曝露と近隣曝露を分類していない.イタリアの石綿セメント工場の研究では,職業性曝露および家族曝露を除外した上で,周辺住民の中皮腫罹患率を算出しているので,近隣曝露のリスクを評価できている.イタリア,南アフリカ,欧州3カ国および英国で行われた症例対照研究では,職業性曝露,家族曝露および近隣曝露を区分して評価している.全体として見ると,クロシドライト鉱山およびアモサイト鉱山の周辺地区での近隣曝露による相対リスクは10〜30であり,大規模な石綿工場の周辺地区での近隣曝露の相対リスクは5〜20程度であった.一方,クリソタイル鉱山および石綿関連施設の近隣曝露では統計的に有意な結果がでない場合もあった.

Routes of asbestos exposure consist of occupational and non-occupational exposures, and furthermore the latter is classified as para-occupational, neighborhood or true general environmental exposure. Consequently, in order to evaluate health risk caused by neighborhood exposure to asbestos, it is necessary to exclude risk due to the other exposure routes from overall risk. We reviewed epidemiological studies on the relationship between neighborhood asbestos exposure and risk of mesothelioma. In studies on a crocidolite mine in South Africa and a chrysotile mine in Canada, occupational exposure was not excluded. In studies on a crocidolite mine in Australia and an asbestos manufacturing factory in U.S.A., risk caused by non-occupational exposure was evaluated, but the risk was not classified as para-occupational and neighborhood exposures. In a study on an asbestos cement factory in Italy, first, occupational and para-occupational exposures were excluded, and next, the incidence rate of mesothelioma in neighborhood residents was calculated, so that risk caused by neighborhood exposure could be evaluated. In case-control studies in Italy, South Africa, three European countries and the U.K., risks caused by occupational, para-occupational and neighborhood exposures were evaluated separately. As a whole, relative risk (RR) of neighborhood exposure in crocidolite and amosite mines was about 10 to 30 and RR in major asbestos factories was about 5 to 20. On the other hand, statistically significant RR of neighborhood exposure was not observed in chrysotile mines and some asbestos facilities.

Journal

  • Journal of occupational health

    Journal of occupational health 49(3), 77-88, 2007-05

    Japan Society for Occupational Health

Cited by:  2

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006279041
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10467364
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    13410725
  • NDL Article ID
    8850451
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZS17(科学技術--医学--衛生学・公衆衛生)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z19-308
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS 
Page Top