脳科学と教育の間 : カリキュラムへの応用方法を中心に(<特集>教育現場の多様化と教育学の課題)  [in Japanese] Between Brain Science and Education : A Proposal of a Method for Applying to School Curriculum(<Special Issue>Diversification of Research Field in Educational Studies)  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

脳科学と教育の「間」には埋めがたい距離と方法的な問題点がある。将来、脳科学の成果を学校カリキュラムに応用しようとする時、立場の相違を認識する上でも、両者が共有しうる概念を明確にする必要がある。そこで「脳科学と教育」に関する近年の研究動向を検討した。その結果、両者を架橋するため、その「橋脚」としてヒトの認知に関わる概念に注目する必要性を指摘した。また、脳科学と重複した概念を用いる特別支援教育の場合をとりあげて、そのアセスメントを学校カリキュラムに利用する方法は提案した。特に、実証的研究を試みる上で、学習者が経験したカリキュラムの実際を系統的に記録し分析するアセスメントが有効であることを明らかにした。

This study was undertaken to consider a method that could be shared to bridge the gap between brain science and curriculum study. Recently, brain science has begun to reveal natural human learning processes and aspects of the development of those processes. The main theme of curriculum study is how to develop school curricula, and the effect of those curricula on the learning mechanism. Thus, it would be natural to assume that findings of brain science might have an impact on school curricula. However, due to the lack of a common language and a common vocabulary, a suitable dialogue between the two fields has not been established. To solve this problem, first of all, we pointed out that there are differences between the usage of concepts in brain science and education. "Objects" to explain changes especially valued for learning are different depending on the researcher's standpoint. Examples are (1) gene, (2) neuron and chemistry, (3) cognition, (4) behavior, and (5) society and culture. Educational researchers and curriculum researchers commonly tend to depend on the standpoint of (5); however, they should use the language of (3) to "bridge" with the field of brain science. Next, we proposed a method to apply findings of brain science, referring especially to special education programs which have already applied findings of brain science, as a way to understand students' educational needs by seessment and planning individualized education programs. In view of the brain mechanism, each child shows "cognitive strength" and "cognitive weakness" in various domains. Therefore, school curricula are needed to plan for enhancing child's learning based on their educational needs that could be understood by cognitive neuropsychological and behavioral assessments. Finally, we found that interactions between the "planned" curriculum and "experienced" curriculum must be analyzed to formulate children's cognitive profiles. It is named curriculum assessment. Based on these results, we suggest three conditions to conduct surveys within a framework for assessment: (1) Understand students' educational needs as gaps between the actual conditions and educational objectives. Assess curricula based on the potential to meet those needs. They must be assessed by using the framework based on "evidence" of findings from psychology and brain science and using quantative research methods and qualitative research methods together if necessary. (2) Focus on children who show outstanding performances in some domains because such children show visible educational needs, and differences between learning environments cleary influence the quality of their performance. (3) Set the appropriate time duration for survey periods to take assessments. It is useful to focus on the period of transition between developmental stages to rethink curriculum development. In addition, there is a strategy to support student's "cognitive strength" and "cognitive weakness" by conducting a retroactive survey of children's learning experiences which reveal traces of their development.

Journal

  • THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 74(2), 162-173, 2007

    Japanese Educational Research Association

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006343569
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00056578
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    0387-3161
  • NDL Article ID
    8892913
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF1(教育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-143
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  IR  J-STAGE 
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