神仏隔離の要因をめぐる考察(<特集>神仏習合とモダニティ) Crucial Factors of the Separation of Shinto and Buddhism(<Special Issue>Shinbutsu Shugo and Modernity)

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神仏隔離の意識ははやく『日本書紀』の中にも認められており律令神祇制度の形成期から神道の独自性を支える要素であったと推測される。神仏習合が頂点に達した称徳朝に道鏡による宇佐八幡宮託宣事件が王権の危機を招いたことにより神仏隔離は一層進展した。天皇および貴族の存立の宗教的根拠である天皇の祭祀の場において仏教に関する事物を接触させることは、仏教的な国王観の受容を許すことになる。そこに神仏隔離の進展の大きな要因があった。さらに九世紀には『貞観式』において、朝廷祭祀、とりわけ天皇祭祀における隔離の制度化が達成された。この段階では平安仏教の発達によって仏教が宮中深く浸透したことや、対外危機に起因する神国思想が作用したと考えられる。平安時代中期以降は、神仏習合の進展にもかかわらず、神仏隔離はさらにその領域を広げていった。後世の展開を見ると神仏隔離は天皇祭祀の領域に限られるものではなく、貴族社会に広く浸透しさらには一般社会にも規範として定着していき今日の神道を形作る大きな要因となった。

The conception of the separation of Shinto and Buddhism is recognized as early as in Nihon shoki. The scandal of Usa Hachimangu Takusen by Dokyo (which occurred in the era of Shotoku Tenno, when the idea of the harmony of Shinto with Buddhism had reached its peak), caused a crisis of royal authority, which in turn prompted the separation of the two. As the result the separation was institutionalized in the Chotei Saishi, and especially in the Tenno Saishi, which are rituals included in the Jogan-shiki of the 9th century. After the middle of the Heian Period, this separation spread widely to regions other than just religious ceremonies, although the harmony of Shinto and Buddhism had also developed vigorously. The belief that the genealogy verifies that the Tenno blood descends from Amaterasu Omikami forms the religious ground for the "raison d'etre" of Tenno and the nobles, and this concept is embodied in the rites of the Tenno Saishi. Thus, if the matters and affairs connected with Buddhism were allowed to be part of the Saishi, it means that the view of monarch sovereignty in terms of Buddhism is accepted officially. This is exactly where the crucial factor of the separation of Shinto and Buddhism lies. It is considered that the institutionalization of the separation in the 9th century was influenced strongly by the awareness that Buddhism had deeply infiltrated into the Court, and by the idea that Japan is the "land of the gods, " which had been enhanced by the sense of crisis related to foreign threats. The separation of Shinto and Buddhism was not confined only to Tenno Saishi, however. It had penetrated deeply into the society of the nobles, and furthermore, it had taken its root as a norm in the society of the common class people. This became the basis on which the Shinto of today is formalized.

収録刊行物

  • 宗教研究

    宗教研究 81(2), 359-383, 2007

    日本宗教学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110006420190
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00406454
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    特集
  • ISSN
    0387-3293
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    8947894
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZH6(哲学・宗教--宗教)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z9-184
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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