社会調査にみる<女中>  [in Japanese] Japanese Housemaid (jochu) in the 1930's  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿は,1930年代に東京と横浜でおこなわれた2つの社会調査から,住み込み女中の実態を明らかにしようとする試みである。女中の多くは農村出身の10代後半から20代前半までの未婚女性で,小学校程度の学歴を持つ。就職の経路として最も多いのは親戚や知人の紹介で,民間・公共の紹介所で仕事に就いた者は少ない。職務限定で雇われている者は少数にすぎず,大半は座敷仕事も台所仕事も何でもこなす,いわゆる「一人女中」である。定まった休みのある者は半数以下で,ある場合も不定期である場合が少なくない。女中の属性や就労状況を女工と比較すると,年齢や学歴の構成は変わらないものの,就労条件は大きく異なる。すなわち,月給30円以上の者は女中では1%にも満たないのに対し,女工では半数近くを占め,公休日も女工の場合はすべて月極で定められており,大半は毎週もしくは隔週で休みがある。就労理由についても,女工のほとんどは「家計補助」「自活」など経済的な必要に迫られ働いているのに対し,女中の場合,過半数が「嫁入支度」「行儀見習」などの理由をあげている。「結婚を目標にした結婚準備のための修業」。このような意識が強いからこそ,安い給料で休みがなくても,何とか我慢できるのであろう。日本の家庭女中を考えるさいには,この点を見逃すことができないのである。This paper examines the situations of live-in maids based on two social surveys conducted in Tokyo and Yokohama in the 1930's. Many live-in maids were unmarried women (from late teens to early 20s) from rural areas where they received an elementary-level education. Most of them were introduced to the job by relatives and acquaintances, and few of them got it through public and nongovernmental job centers. Only a small number of them were employed to engage in specialized tasks, and most were all-rounders doing any kind of work at all around the house. Less than half had regular days off. Even if nonworking days were stated, they were irregular in many cases. Comparing the situations of maids with those of factory girls, although their age and educational backgroud were similar, workig conditions differed a lot. For example, less than 1% of maids got monthly wages of 30 yen or more, while almost half the factory girls earned that amount. Holidays for factory girls were fixed monthly, and most of them had days off every or every other week. Moreover, most factory girls worked out of financial necessity to support their households or to live independently. In the case of maids, however, for the majority the reasons for working were to prepare for marriage, to learn manners and housework. "The apprenticeship is a preparation period for marriage." Since the job of maid was widely described like this, girls endured work with low wages and no days off. This is a point we must not forget when considring the situation of housemaid in Japan.

This paper examines the situations of live-in maids based on two social surveys conducted in Tokyo and Yokohama in the 1930's. Many live-in maids were unmarried women (from late teens to early 20s) from rural areas where they received an elementary-level education. Most of them were introduced to the job by relatives and acquaintances, and few of them got it through public and nongovernmental job centers. Only a small number of them were employed to engage in specialized tasks, and most were all-rounders doing any kind of work at all around the house. Less than half had regular days off. Even if nonworking days were stated, they were irregular in many cases. Comparing the situations of maids with those of factory girls, although their age and educational backgroud were similar, workig conditions differed a lot. For example, less than 1% of maids got monthly wages of 30 yen or more, while almost half the factory girls earned that amount. Holidays for factory girls were fixed monthly, and most of them had days off every or every other week. Moreover, most factory girls worked out of financial necessity to support their households or to live independently. In the case of maids, however, for the majority the reasons for working were to prepare for marriage, to learn manners and housework. "The apprenticeship is a preparation period for marriage." Since the job of maid was widely described like this, girls endured work with low wages and no days off. This is a point we must not forget when considring the situation of housemaid in Japan.

Journal

  • The Bulletin of Kansai University of International Studies

    The Bulletin of Kansai University of International Studies (6), 87-98, 2005-03

    Kansai University of International Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006424633
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11544811
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    13455311
  • NDL Article ID
    7676530
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZV1(一般学術誌--一般学術誌・大学紀要)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-J422
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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