中国における地方行政改革と地方自治について--北京市石景山区魯谷の「大社区」改革を事例に [in Japanese] About the Local Administration Reform and Local Autonomy in China : By an Example about the "Big Community" Reform of Beijing City Shijingshang Area Lugu Community [in Japanese]
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In recent years, the course of "community construction" in the so-called Residents' Committee is undertaken briskly in the city of China, and the word "Community" has come to be used frequently. However, Shijingshang area Lugu Street Office of Beijing is the first one to have reformed into "Community" Street Office in October 2003, which consists of some Residents' Committees, as "big Community" reform to the name of a public office by the free election. (Construction of "big Community" without the free election has already appeared in Shanghai of the 1990s, which is the so-called "Shanghai model"). From the middle of August to September of 2004, we visited Beijing City Shijingshang area Lugu Community, and conducted a local research. Especially, supported by the Beijing government and Shijingshang government, the round-table conference was successfully held in Lugu Community on August 17, 2004. During the friendly talk with Mr. FENG Zhongbei who is the chief of the Lugu Community center, it was our privilege and pleasure to listen to his explanation about the actual condition of Community Reform presently. Reform of Lugu Community, as the earliest reform of "big community" in China, implies a conversion in the resident autonomy organization developing from "large government and small society" to "small government and big society". Beyond that, under the Chinese socialist market economy system, the reform of Lugu Community as the trial for adjustment of the relationships among the government, the society, and the market, is meaningful and significant that this kind of reform could be considered as one model case for the future reforms. Even if China and Japan are both set to the Three Tier System, the targets of these two countries have the difference. The way in China indicates the decentralization-of-authority that is carried about as one part of reform of the local administration. On contrary, the way in Japan is emphasized particularly on the local autonomy. From the perspective of theory, the subjects about self-government of China and Japan are different. Namely, although China and Japan both build the independent regional organization, on one hand Japan emphasizes on the "entity's autonomy" that means to establish local governments or entities relatively independent from central government ; on the other hand, China think as important the "resident autonomy" as the self-government model that the local politics and administration are determined and executed by the local residents. Although the local autonomy in Lugo Community is an example of the reform of "resident autonomy" in the city, it can be understood as "resident autonomy", with comparison to "village-people self-government" being implemented in the country. Because these two kinds of self-government have no financial right. It is just one of the features of local autonomy of contemporary China, isn't it? Moreover, there was the village-people self-government to which "local autonomy" without a financial right once performed in the country in Qing era of China historically. A similar phenomenon can be also fond in Japan. To research such a special "local autonomy" and its features has a big meaning both in theory and practice.
- Shimane journal of North East Asian research
Shimane journal of North East Asian research (10), 95-104, 2006-01
The University of Shimane