トンガ王国の漁業振興と魚食慣行の衰退 [in Japanese] The disappearing fish-eating custom in Kingdom of Tonga: an anthropological study of the fisheries in a micro-state [in Japanese]
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The Kingdom of Tonga consists of 171 islands with the total land area of 670km^2. The exclusive economic zone of the Tonga is wide as 700,000km^2. In 2001, the total population of 99,000 included 70,000 residents in the Tongatapu Island and 40,000 people lived in metropolis, Nuku'alofa. Fish resources in the coral reef area surrounding the Tongatapu Island have become markedly exhausted since the latter half of 1970's. The depletion of fish resources is largely ascribed to reckless fishing of fish grounds due to the concentration of population in the metropolis. Therefore the price of fish has become higher than imported canned or frozen meats since 1980's. Tongan people is obliged to depend on imported canned meat and mutton flaps for taking animal protein. One purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the traditional fisheries in Tonga in respect to the fishing methods, organization of fishermen, and fish marketing system, etc. The second purpose is to discuss the food lives of farmers concerning the custom of fish eating and the dependency of imported meat eating, which is causing diseases such as high blood pressure, heart trouble, diabetes etc. The commercial fisheries in Tonga is performed mainly with traditional fisheries such as diving-spearing, seasonal gill-net fishing as well as modern line fishing and long line fishing. Traditional fisheries are conducted around the lagoons, fringing reefs, and reef slopes. The line fishing is performed in fishing grounds within the water depth 600m. The long line fishing is run offshore. The Ministry of Fisheries calculate annual fish catches at about 2,000tons. They are less than the amount of imported mutton flaps of 2,500tons. The Government of Tonga has introduced a modernization program in fisheries to perform stable self-supply of fishes on the aids from abroad since 1980's. The program has been almost concluded with the improvements of fishing boats, fishing implements, and fishing methods as well as the construction of new fishing port and fishing market. Though the fundamental development of fisheries has been completed, there are still many problems to be solved concerning the protection of fishery resources, storage and management of landed fishes and stable supply and marketing them. Among them I indicate in focusing the protection of fishery resources. Traditional fisheries have been performed not only as commercial fisheries but also as subsistence economy and household fishing in coral reef areas. Irrespective of the forms of fisheries, it is important to organize fishermen and establish the organization such as fishermen's cooperative association to be an entity with authority to inhibit or control fishing activities of fishermen to protect and sustain fishery resources.
- Journal of intercultural studies
Journal of intercultural studies (28), 35-66, 2007-07