17世紀中葉の英国における女性の説教-教えること-とコスモロジーの攪乱--女性説教者批判パンフレットを中心に [in Japanese] Women's preaching and subversion of cosmology in 17th century England: two pamphlets attacking on women preachers [in Japanese]
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In the Interregnum England, many women preachers appeared among the radical sectarian movement. They were preached on the tub or bricks, like men sectarians. This paper shows the Cosmology and the idea of sex difference in the pamphlets attacks on the women preachers. As T. Laqueur says, 'One Sex Model' was dominant in the early modern Europe. 'One Sex Model', the fluid and interchangeable body image, was connected with Cosmology-Micro-Cosmos (human body) corresponded to Macro-Cosmos (the World), according to Cosmos God created--. This model is completely different from our modern 'Two Sex Model', based on the idea of body in modern anatomy, biology and medical science. In Thomason Tracts, there were many women's petitions or remonstrances. And we can see the word 'Women's or Ladie's Parliament'. It clears that many women expressed their will and opinion in 'the world turned upside down' (C. Hill). A DISCOVERIE of Six women preachers (anon.) showed author's experience and observation about women's spiritual leadership with the help of supernatural powers. People would have both the fear and the respect of the women preachers. In A Spirit Moving in the Women-Preachers (anon.), the author exhaustively criticized the women preachers in sects by citation of the Bible. These attacks on women preachers based on the early modern Cosmology and Spirituality. The moving of spirit was the most important in both tracts. But their strong tensional discourse suggests the fear about subversion or disturbance of the static order relating to sex, included in the Cosmology. Women were considered 'the weaker sex (vessel)' and this idea held the Cosmological order of men and women. Everyone was to be in the 'proper place' in order for the God's Cosmos. But the dream of Millenarianism and 'the world turned upside down' in the Interregnum, supported by ordinaries, gave many women the power of preaching or teaching to people. Their conduct would be impossible in the order (the Cosmos) in the period. Women preachers disappeared in 1660s, as sectarian movement had died down.
- Research bulletin
Research bulletin (9), 1-17, 2006