コスモスからピュシスへ : 人類学的近代論の試み  [in Japanese] From Cosmos to Physis : An Anthropological Treatise on Modernity  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

この論文の目的は三つある。第一に、ボランニーの「離床」議論を経済のみでなく他の領域に適用して、伝統から近代への展開を描くころ、第二に、それらの「離床」の議論を言語論的に翻訳すること、そして、第三に、スーパーヴィーニエンス(依存)の議論を導入して、ある種の離床に現れる誤謬を指摘すること、である。はじめに、四つの離床が描かれる。自然の生活世界からの離床、個人の共同体の離床、身体の人格よりの離床を経て、最後に経済の社会からの離床をもって近代が完成する様子が描かれる。続く章では、離床を言語論的に翻訳する。経済の離床では、市場述語と贈与述語の分離が、自然の離床においては第一述語と第二述語の、個人の離床においては個人述語と社会述語の、そして身体の離床では物理述語と人格述語の、それぞれの分離が指摘される。最後の章では、離床を強い離床と弱い離床とに分類し、強い離床が還元であることが示される。そして、還元と依存(スーパーヴィーニエンス)の区分が導入され、強い離床論者は還元と依存を混同する錯誤を犯していることが指摘される。

<p>The aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, I wish to descibe a brief history of the world from traditionality to modernity by applying the idea of 'disembeddedness' as proposed by Karl Polanyi, not only to the sphere of the economy, but also to the spheres of lifeworld, community and personhood. Secondly, I want to apply a linguistic twist to the discussions of disembeddedness. Finally, I will prove that some of the consequences of modernity are logically wrong. I want to show that we are, as it were, living in an age of fallacy. In the first section, I deal with four kinds of disembeddedness. First, I expound how nature became disembedded from the lifeworld of people. By referring to sevela ethnographic works, I show that people in hunter-gatherer cultures tend to represent human-nature relatedness in terms of personal relationships. Nature is considered to be 'what we are,' and, therefore, considered inseparable from us. It is thanks to Galileo and others that the Western world came to isolate the objectifiable world from the lifeworld. Thus came the disembedding of nature from the lifeworld, with nature becoming a silent physis subjected to mathematicization. Nature is now considered to be 'what we have,' that is, resources lying there to be exploited. The second subsection deals with the disembedding of individuals from the community. As a seminal work by Mauss shows, the western idea of personhood (as a bounded, unique and independent universe, that is, as an individual) is a historical construct. Ethnographic works, such as one by Leenhardt, show that individuals in so-called traditional societies are so conceptualized as to be embedded in communities. Then came the dualism of body and mind propounded by Descartes, in which the physical body came to be disembedded from personhood, and the remaining living aspect of personhood was to be labeled 'mind.' Now, one's mind is regarded as private and inaccessible to others; the body, on the other hand, is a mathematicized entity, there to be exploited, as in organ transplantation. The process of modernization was completed by the final disembedding, that of the economy from society. Works by Polanyi have described the said process well. The second section marks a linguistic turn of the paper, in which each disembedding process is couched in linguistic terms. The disembedding of nature from the lifeworld is shown to be actually a logical separation of primary predicates (describing measureable properties of an object) from secondary predicates (describing humanly appreciated properties of an object). The two terns were originally coined by John Locke, and are used, in that context, with slight modifications. The disembedding of the individual from the community is a separation of I-predicates (predicats which do not refer to social institutions at all) from S-predicats (predicats which refer, in one way or another, to social institutions). Both terms derive from a work on the philosophy of history by Arthur C. Danto. The disembedding of the body from personhood is a separation of M-predicates (predicates that can be applied to all objects, person and non-person) and P-predicates (predicates that can only be applied to person). Those terms come from P. F. Strawson's philosophical work on personhood. Finally, the disembedding process of the economy from society is shown to be a logical separation of what I call 'market-predicates' from 'gift-predicates.' I have thus far introduced four pairs of predicates (primary and secondary, I and S, M and P, and finally, market and gift). Let us call the former of each pair 'small predicates' and the latter 'big predicates.' Now, we can say that disembedding is a separation of small predicates from big predicates. Only at that stage that I can make my intention explicit: by traditionality and</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

    Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology 72(4), 466-484, 2008

    Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006650340
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11958949
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL Article ID
    9464899
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-240
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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