漢語動詞の自他体系の近代から現代への変化 Change in the Intransitive-transitive System of Sino-Japanese Verbs from the Early Modern Period to the Present

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現代より自他両用動詞の多い近代漢語動詞の自他体系が,現代までにどう変化したかをコーパスを用いて分析し,その要因を考察した。近代漢語が自動詞として存立するための条件<通常,他から人為的なはたらきかけを受けずとも成立し得る変化を表す>は,現代に至っても変わらないが,他動詞として存立するための条件〈非情物または非情物と有情物の両方が変化主体となり得る変化を表す>は,現代に至ると厳しくなり,非情物が変化主体であっても自律性の高い事象は他動詞で表せなくなった。結果,多くの自他両用動詞が自動詞専用化した。このような変化が起きたのは,漢語動詞が日本語への定着度を増すなかで,和語に倣い自他を分化させる方向へ力が働いたためと考えられ,それを可能にしたのが,他動詞化接辞として機能する「-させる」の存在だとみられる。一方,自動詞化接辞が日本語になかったことが,他動詞専用化した動詞の少なさの背景にあるとみられる。

This paper examines, on the basis of a corpus study, how and why the modern intransitive-transitive system of Sino-Japanese verbs (Chinese loan words + the Japanese light verb -suru) has greatly changed over time. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Modern Sino-Japanese verbs can be used transitively when they represent changes in which agents are not restricted to humans (or animals); they can be used intransitively when they represent changes which come about without external human control. When both of these conditions are satisfied, they can be used both intransitively and transitively. 2) In this intransitive-transitive verb system of Sino-Japanese, only some of the verbs that have both intransitive and transitive usage have changed. These changes come in two directions: one is to lose transitive usage, and the other is to lose intransitive usage. The former happened as a condition of having transitive usage became more "severe" (verbs which express events that are likely to occur spontaneously cannot have transitive usage) due to assimilation to native Japanese verbs, many of which have a pair of different forms for intransitive and transitive verbs. The latter happened because certain verbs narrowed their semantic field to denote only events for which external human control is necessary. 3) Of these two, the verbs which have lost transitive usage greatly outnumber those that have lost intransitive usage. This can be explained through the native Japanese suffix -saseru functioning as a "causative" marker, substituting for the former transitive usage, whereas there is no "anti-causative" marker in Japanese (the passive marker -sareru does not function as "anti-causative").

収録刊行物

  • 日本語研究

    日本語研究 3(4), 17-32, 2007

    日本語学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110006651027
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11998386
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    8961578
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z71-M894
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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