古代語資料としての出土物(<特集>資料研究の現在)  [in Japanese] Unearthed Materials as Sources of Old Japanese Language Data(<Special Issue>The Current State of Document Research)  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

木簡をはじめとする出土物に墨や線刻で文字を書いたものがあり、手続きをふめば言語資料になる。それらは、古代の現物がそのまま利用できる点に価値がある。また、日々の文書行政の場で使い捨てを前提にして書かれたので、日常の言語使用が反映している点にも価値がある。出土物を言語資料として活用することによって、記紀万葉の類からとは異なる知見を得ることができ、今後、八世紀以前の日本語の全体像が塗り替えられるであろう。九世紀以降との連続・不連続も一層精密に解明されるであろう。より良質な資料を得て適切にとりあつかうためには、歴史学・考古学との学際を深める必要がある。また、朝鮮半島の出土物との比較が、研究の深化と精密化と発展をもたらす。

In recent decades, many wooden pieces have been unearthed from the ruins of ancient capital cities and government offices in all parts of the country. These, now, amount to several tens of thousands. On most of their surfaces, Chinese characters written in India ink are found. These characters are the documents of daily government affairs. Adopting the correct way, we can read these strings of Chinese characters as the words and sentences of 7〜8th Century Japanese language. Thus, these old wooden documents are very useful for studying old Japanese language. They are useful because: (1) they are original sources, unlike, Kojiki, Nihon-shoki and Man'yoshu, which are manuscripts written in medieval times; (2) they reflect the daily and colloquial aspects of old Japanese language, as opposed to the formal and literary aspects reflected by Kojiki, Nihon-shoki and Man'yoshu; (3) they have been unearthed together with many other remains, enabling us to establish exactly when and why these documents of government affairs were written. Using them as linguistic data, we can interpret the whole of the 7〜8th Century Japanese language more correctly. We should realize that Kojiki, Nihon-shoki and Man'yoshu reflect only partial aspects of 8th Century Japanese language. In order to learn most from the details of these old wooden documents, it is important that this be an interdisciplinary study. We should collaborate with historians and archaeologists. In addition, since the Korean and Japanese languages are similar syntactically yet dissimilar phonologically, parallels with materials unearthed in Korea will be very effective.

Journal

  • Studies in the Japanese Language

    Studies in the Japanese Language 4(1), 1-14, 2008

    The Society for Japanese Linguistics

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006782123
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11998386
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    特集
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL Article ID
    9330835
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z71-M894
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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