健常児における書字能力と形態認知との関連について : 精神遅滞児の書字能力を高めるための基礎的検討 An Investigation of the Relationship between Writing Skill and Form Recognition in Children Without Disabilities : As a Basic Examination to benefit that Skill in Children with Mental Retardation
In order to have a basis for developing writing skill in children with mental retardation, the present study examined elements that may be related positively to the ability to acquire writing skills in younger children without disabilities. Subjects were 10 children who were learning writing skills; they were from 3 years 8 months to 7 years 11 months old. They were tested on 5 tasks: (1) writing kana (the tester dictated the Japanese words for dog, picture book, mama, and papa) and their own names; (2) naming geometric figures (a triangle and others); (3) copying the same figures; (4) reading (46 hiragana syllables); and (5) doing some tasks selected from the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP). Writing skill was categorized into 4 levels: correctly written; unstable with few errors; unstable and right on only half of the problems; and impossible. From the comparison of this estimation with other test performances, the following were pointed out: (1) writing skill is preceded by reading ability, suggesting the importance of the prior acquisition of the latter; (2) copying figures is related strongly to writing, that is, good performers in writing are likely to copy a triangle or star-like figure successfully; (3) on the DTVP, items in Tests I, II, and V are related to writing performance, and a perceptual age (PA) of 4 years 3 months seems to be a borderline for the establishment of writing. Abilities such as drawing a line within a 3-mm band width in Test I (eyemotor coordination), extraction of a figure from overlapping ones in Test II (figure-ground discrimination), and discrimination and drawing of a line to connect dots in a matrix (9 or 24 dots) following a sample in Test V (spatial relationships) are thought to be potential bases for progress in writing skill.
特殊教育学研究 31(4), 37-43, 1994