戦前の精神病学における「精神薄弱」概念の理論史研究  [in Japanese] A Study of the Theoretical History of the Concept of "Mental Deficiency" in Japanese Psychiatry Prior to World War II  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

「精神薄弱」概念の理論史研究の一環として、戦前を代表する呉秀三・三宅鑛一・杉田直樹らの精神病学書を素材に、19世紀末から昭和戦前期までの精神病学における「精神薄弱」概念の形成過程とその特質を検討した。その結果、(1)クレペリン精神病学体系はわが国の「精神薄弱」の成立に影響を与え、「白痴・痴愚・魯鈍」の三分類法の確立や「精神薄弱」の疾病から障害への転換の重要な契機になった。(2)「精神薄弱」の精神病学的診断や定義における知能測定法の適用の問題として、三宅鑛一の提起により、クレペリン精神病学体系による医学的診断を基礎に知能測定法はその補助手段として活用され、1930年代末にはクレペリン精神病学体系と知能測定法の併用方法が採用された。(3)「精神薄弱」児の生活年齢・経験のもつ発達的意味に光を当てた杉田直樹の知能と社会生活適応性の二次元による「精神薄弱」の概念規定は、戦前の到達点であり、戦後の「精神薄弱」概念にも影響を与えた。

The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the process of formation of the concept of "mental deficiency" in psychiatry in Japan prior to World War II, and the characteristics of this concept, using the study method of theoretical history. Materials examined were the main books written on psychiatry by Shyuzo Kure, Koh'ichi Miyake, and Naoki Sugita, who were well-known psychiatrists in Japan. The main results were as follows: (1) Emil Kraepelin's psychiatric system influenced the formation of the concept of "mental dificiency" and its classifications ("idiot", "imbecile", and "moron") in Japan. Kraepelin's system was also important in that it transferred "mental deficiency" from being a concept of mental disease to being a concept of disability. (2) Koh'ichi Miyake proposed to adopt mental testing to supplement the diagnosis and classification of "mental deficiency" on the basis of psychiatric diagnoses in Kraepelin's system. (3) Naoki Sugita constructed a new concept of "mental deficiency" from the point of view of the chronological age and life experience of mentally retarded children. Sugita's new concept consisted of two dimensions: a defect in intelligence and a disability in social life adaptation. Sugita's concept of "mental deficiency" was adopted not only in psychiatry, but in all other related fields prior to World War II, and it influenced the concept of "mental deficiency" after World War II. These three paradigm changes were caused by two factors. The first was academic independence and the formation as an agent of Japanese psychiatry. The second was that pedagogy, psychology, education, and social work practices relating to "mental dificiency" had formed after those in psychiatry, and that, as a result of confrontation and disputation between these other areas and psychiatry, the concept of "mental deficiency" was modified and became much more sophisticated.

Journal

  • The Japanese Journal of Special Education

    The Japanese Journal of Special Education 35(1), 33-43, 1997

    The Japanese Association of Special Education

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110006785181
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00172513
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3374
  • NDL Article ID
    4255191
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF9(教育--各科教育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-314
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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