明治20年代後半における大日本教育会研究組合の成立 Establishment of Research Associations in the Educational Society of Japan
This study aims to clarify the process by which Research Associations (Kenkyu-Kumiai) were established between 1894 and 1896, along with their historical significance. In the field of education in Japan in the 1890s, research on the theory and art of education based not on education in a foreign country but on Japanese folk customs and cultures was required. The Educational Society of Japan from 1892 to 1893 made efforts toward not this problem but the political campaign concerning the expense of education. However, because the political campaign was banned by the Ministry of Education in October 1893, the Educational Society of Japan decided to conduct research on the theory and art of education. Thereafter, Higher Normal School teachers and members of the education planning committee (Kyouiku-Danwa-Kai) who had been aiming at establishing an organization for the research on the theory and art of education took control of the reform. The Higher Normal School teachers played an important role in the establishment of Research Associations. To improve the method of education by the in-service teachers, Jigoro Kanou, the principal of the Higher Normal School, came up with the plan to engage a prominent researcher and an educator. The Higher Normal School teachers enacted the Research Associations regulations along Kanou's plan, and presented the official explanation. Six Research Associations had been established from 1894 to 1896. Half the numbers of researchers of the Research Associations were Higher Normal School teachers. At that time, the Higher Normal School teachers were researching didactics for the single-class school. Their research mainly adopted the editorial format from foreign countries, and focused on the practices of their schools. However, domestic research was disregarded in their research. The Research Association concerning didactics of the single-class school researched the development of teaching materials and didactics appropriate for Japan, and presented the study results to domestic researchers. A Higher Normal School teacher who was a member of the Research Association also participated in one such research. The establishment of Research Associations promoted domestic research exchange with the in-service teachers and didactics research suitable for Japan and for the Higher Normal School teachers, who had focused only on foreign research in their schools.
教育学研究 75(3), 263-275, 2008