イランにおける地方議会制度と地方自治意識の発展--ハータミー期における展開とその法律的条件について (特集:イラン世界とその周辺地域--その形成と展開) [in Japanese] Local councils and the emergence of self-governance in Iran: developments in the Khatami era and their legal-historical aspects [in Japanese]
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〈特集〉イラン世界とその周辺地域 : その形成と展開
The author of this paper has paid special attention to developments after the first nationwide election for local councils in February 1999, which is considered to be one of the most important achievements in President Khatami's reform program since 1997. As the second election was held in February 2003 and the third in December 2006, local councils appear to have become established in Iranian society. As a preliminary research on local councils, this paper aims to point out that the legal-historical origin of local councils can be traced back to the history of constitutionalism in modern Iran, and it seeks to examine each article in the relevant legislations since that time. To explore the prehistory of the local councils in Iran, Chapter I reviews the constitutional provisions on local councils (anjomans) and their relevant legislations, before the 1979 Islamic revolution. Laws covered in this chapter are the following: relevant articles in the 1907 supplementary law of the 1906 Constitution which is the first written constitution in modern Iranian history, articles in "the province (eyalat) and district (velayat) anjomans bill" submitted to parliament in 1907, "the district (shahrestdn) and province (ostan) anjomans bill" submitted to parliament in 1970, and its amendment bill submitted in 1976. To refer to the translations of articles related to this chapter, please see I-1 to I-5 of the appendix section entitled "the list of the regulations related to Iranian local councils." Chapter II focuses on the village anjomans' laws since the era of the 1952 Prime Minister Dr. Mosaddegh, seeing them as another root of the local councils in today's Iran. This chapter examines a series of laws beginning from "the bill on farmers' share expansion and agricultural development organizations" in 1952, to "the amendment law on village anjoman formation and the village chief (dehbdni) nomination" in 1976. Translations of related articles can be seen in II-1 to II-5 of the appendix section. To elaborate on the legal-historical aspects of the local councils in post-revolutionary Iran, Chapter III examines relevant articles in the 1979 Constitution that was enacted after the Islamic revolution, and later "the law on the structure, duties, and elections of the Islam shoura and mayor nominations" that was adopted in 1996, which can be seen as the result of the constitution. It is clear that all the reform efforts for political decentralization launched at the first election of local councils in 1999 have their origin in the 1996 law and its enforcement. The translations of relevant articles can be seen in III-1 to III-4 of the appendix section. Finally, the paper suggests that the introduction of local councils since 1999 is a (partial) realization of the idea of self-governance of cities and provinces dating back to the era of the constitutional revolution in 1907, and that the articles referred to in this paper seem to reflect several structural changes in the Iranian rural society during the last 100 years or so.
- The Journal of Sophia Asian studies.
The Journal of Sophia Asian studies. (25), 251-286, 2007