イングランドにおけるガーデン・ヴィレッジとガーデン・サバーブ Garden Villages and Garden Suburbs in England
The purpose of this study was to make clear the characteristics of garden villages and garden suburbs in England. Also, in this paper I discussed the question of the location of the first Garden Suburb. The results obtained from these studies are summarised as follows. The 'garden city' idea has many unique features that continue to be relevant today, not only in England, but also throughout the world. Bournville Village, Port Sunlight Village and New Earswick are traditionally known as industrial villages, but we can also say that they are garden villages. The original concept behind the villages was to provide a good living environment for all the people of the working class according to the founder's philanthropic tradition. It is an important fact that the garden villages were particularly responsible for the articulation of many important ideas to the garden city concept. The prime purpose of the garden suburb was to solve the problem of housing for the working class. The aims of the Co-Partnership Tenants Society were to construct housing for a socially mixed community in the garden suburb. Their incorporation of green open space and a site layout, which included adequate garden space and picturesque cottages, was a precursor of the garden suburb style of planning. Bedford Park (Acton) has started in 1875 and nowadays claims the title of 'the first garden suburb' (Bolsterli, 1977 and Greeves, 1983), and Merton Park (Wimbledon) begun in 1870, claims the title of 'the original garden suburb' (Woolfenden, 1979). Brentham, started in 1901, and Hampstead Garden Suburb, started in 1907, had been designed by Parker and Unwin as architect-planners under the garden suburb concept. Ealing Tenants Limited, the pioneer Co-Partnership organisation, was registered in 1901 to develop a site at Brentham on the northern outskirts of Ealing, west of London. However, Bedford Park and Merton Park were speculative development, which lacked any real social aim in its foundations therefore, the garden suburb concept had not yet emerged at the end of the 19th centuries. In this sense, Brentham is 'Ealing's Garden Suburb' with origins in the Co-Partnership movement as a garden suburb, and it is understood to be the first garden suburb in England. And we can say that Bedford Park or Merton Park is one of the Victorian Railway Suburbs (Hall, 1996), which means they rely on a railway station to take commuters from suburb to the city centre. This paper is the result of a study that I have been conducting as a visiting researcher in the Department of Geography, University College London (April 1999 to March 2000). The author would like to express thanks to Sir Professor Peter Hall and Dr. Richard Dennis, University College London, for their great help in the survey.
駒澤地理 36, 55-78, 2000-03