コミュニティを想像する : 人類学的省察(学会賞受賞記念論文)  [in Japanese] Imagining Communities : Anthropological Reflections(JASCA Award Lecture 2008)  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿は日本文化人類学会第42回研究大会(2008年6月1日、於京都大学)における第3回日本文化人類学会賞受賞記念講演の内容を書き改めたものである。その目的は、1960年代末から今日にいたる私自身の人類学研究をふり返りながら、人びとが想像的、再帰的な実践のなかでコミュニティを構成していく過程を考察することにある。ここではコミュニティとは、すでにそこに存在するものばかりでなく、人びとの欲望、想像や思考の展開のなかで実践的に創られていくという視角から考える。そこでまず1970年代以降に現れたブルデューやレイヴ/ウェンガーらの実践理論を批判的に検討しながら、コミュニティが多様な権力作用のなかで形成されることに注目する。ここでいう権力作用とは他者にたいする外部からの支配だけでなく、イデオロギーや言説のように、人びとの認知様式や価値評価に影響をおよぼし、秩序の承認へと導く効果を含んでいる。そうした権力作用にたいする抵抗あるいは闘争を描くことは20世紀末の民族誌の重要なテーマであり、そこには西欧近代の主体概念とは異なったエージェンシーの躍動が浮き彫りになった。私が取り組んだ北タイの霊媒カルトやエイズ自助グループの研究も、病者や感染者たちがコミュニティのなかで自己と他者、権力の諸関係を想像的、再帰的な実践をとおして創りなおしていく過程に焦点をあてるものであった。彼らの実践の資源となるのは合理主義的知であるよりは、むしろコミュニティに埋め込まれた自分たちの<生>にかかわる解釈学的知である。しかし他方、近年の社会的マネージメントの展開において、こうしたコミュニティのなかに形成される共同性そのものが、国家、企業、NGOなどを含む多様な権力が介入する回路や標的となっていることに注目しなければならない。そこでフーコーの統治性の概念は、権力がそうしたコミュニティの枠組みをとおして介入し、自己規律化するフレキシブルな主体を構築していくことを分析するにあたって有効だと考えられる。このようにして人びとが想像力によってコミュニティを新たな共同性として構成してゆく道筋は、統治テクノロジーの作用による自己規律化と重なりあっているのであり、人類学はそうした重層的過程にアプローチする必要があるだろう。

<p>This paper is based on a Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology Prize lecture that I delivered at Kyoto University on 1 June 2008. Its major objective is to explore ways in which people constitute a community through their imagining and reflexive practices by drawing on the reflections of my anthropological career since the late 1960s. The 'community' is here regarded not only as existing social relations already constituted, but as being constituted and situated in terms of people's desires, imagination and thinking through their everyday practices. I begin with my earlier and rather crude assumption that novel communality, which has never come into being before or only potentially existed, could be materialized in this world through the struggles, resistance or negotiations of people against ongoing power relations in the midst of the contradictory development of the capitalist system. The argument subsequently focuses on multiple effects of power relations that lead to the construction of communities, by examining the practice theories put forward by P. Bourdieu since the 1970s, by S. Ortner in the 1980s and by J. Lave and E. Wenger in the 1990s. It is argued that whilst the theory of the 'community of practice' by Lave and Wenger sheds light on the processes of gradual participation that enable the participants to acquire knowledge and skills, together with their identity of being members of the community, it largely fails to reveal the power relations involved in such participatory processes. The effect of power refers not only to coercion, control or domination over individuals and groups from outside. It also signifies, as the post-structuralist tradition lucidly maintains, the effects extending to their mode of cognition and system of evaluation, as seen in ideology or discourse that eventually leads to the recognition of the existing social order. To describe instances of resistance and struggle against such power relations thus became a major ethnographic topic towards the end of the twentieth century, in which the actuality of agency, quite different from the modern notion of the subject, is a prominent feature. My ethnographic studies on a peasant leader, spirit mediumship and HIV/AIDS self-help groups in northern Thailand are also concerned with the processes in which villagers, patients or sufferers recreate, through their imagination and reflexive practices, their relationship between the self and other, and the power relations around them. As revealed in other cases, media or resources of their practices are derived from hermeneutic knowledge concerning their own life situated within the communities, rather than from modern rational knowledge. During the last decade of the twentieth century in northern Thailand, people infected with HIV were able to organize themselves into self-help groups to maximize their lives through the establishment of such practices as intra-group counselling, home visiting, holistic health care, as well as struggling against the social discrimination by campaigns and negotiations with medical institutions and government offices. We could thus detect among those self-help groups the emergence of what P. Rabinow calls 'bio-sociality', namely, sociality based on life itself, as opposed to the individualization and fragmentation that proceeded radically under the modern medical system. On the other hand, however, under the recent development of social management, we have to pay special attention to the communality itself that has emerged in such self-help groups, which tends to be transformed into a target of intervention by a variety of powers, such as international agencies, medical bureaucracy, industrial enterprises and NGOs. The recent introduction of an ARV (antiretroviral) scheme since the early 2000s is a case in point. Along with that new system of curing, a great number of HIV-infected</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

    Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology 73(3), 289-308, 2008

    Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007023955
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11958949
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL Article ID
    9782267
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-240
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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