大都市の膨張と生活空間の構築 : 「大東京」の都市問題(大会報告・共通論題:可能性としての都市-公共性と生活空間) [in Japanese] The Expansion of Urban Areas and the Construction of Living Space : Urban Problems in Greater Tokyo(PAPERS READ AT THE AUTUMN CONFERENCE SYMPOSIUM, 2003 Potential for Research on the Urban Histories: Public Affairs and Living space) [in Japanese]
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Although the post-1920s progress of mass-society popularization and bureaucratization has attracted much attention in big city research in recent years, this paper discusses the problem of public responsibility in the maintenance of a living space for the masses, using the city of Tokyo from the 1920s to the 1930s as an example. In particular, I consider the role of markets and administration, and the influence of some social policy problems on the market system. Following the boom of World War I, the consumption/living section expanded continuously. Under the backdrop of a quantitative supply-demand imbalance, urban problems arose, accompanying urbanization. The labor-intensive supply section created excesses and shortages in turns. To adjust this imbalance, the city's relations with external entities, including foreign countries, for the supply of materials, food, etc. strengthened. On the other hand, friction over social justice and the distribution of insufficient resources between areas or sections arose within the city. The problem of protecting the safety of urban society versus increasing the efficiency of the distribution of daily necessities is a typical example. The Tokyo administration, colliding with the diversity of the "public" through price problems or small business and industry problems, realized that small business owners and industrialists constitute one of the city's main socioeconomic classes, and attempted to support them through offering public assistance in resource management. While the supply of goods had been primarily determined in a market-mechanism fashion by the small managers, the city decided, in a pioneering way, to try to implement partial state control of supply. From this experience, the idea that a government agency will be expected to act as an adjusting body in mass urban society was born. As the commerce and industry administration of the city of Tokyo became clearly aware of the need to modify its policy of noninterference, it considered the two problems of assisting/complementing management, and respecting the public. Consequently, the stabilization of the supply of living necessities led to the instruction of the small industry sector and its management, and became the starting point for housing policy and small-and-medium sized enterprise policy following World War II.
- The Journal of Political Economy and Economic History
The Journal of Political Economy and Economic History 46(3), 28-37, 2004
The Political Economy and Economic History Society