戦後日本の社会変動とハンセン病者による現実の意味構成:ある都市部療養所における「ふるさとの森」作りの取り組みから How have Hansen's Disease Sufferers Constructed the Reality of Their Everyday Lives Amidst Social Change in Postwar Japan?:From the Furusato no mori movement at the urban sanatorium

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Abstract

本稿は,国立ハンセン病療養所「多磨全生園」入所者による「ふるさとの森」作りの取り組みを検討することで,戦後日本社会の変化を生きるなかで彼らがいかなる実践を通して関係性や生の意味を模索してきたか明らかにする.近代以降の日本においては国民国家の形成過程を通して,ハンセン病者を健康者から弁別し,療養所へ収容する隔離政策が進められ,1996年まで約1世紀にわたり続けられた.<br>他方でハンセン病療養所を取り巻く状況は,多磨全生園の場合,戦後日本社会で進む都市化の影響などによって大きく変化した。それまで自明だった日常が解体される状況に直面するなか,全生園入所者にとって,自らが生きる現実の意味を新たに構成することが重要な問題となった.<br>1970年代半ば以降,全生園入所者は「ふるさとの森」作りの取り組みを通して,療養所内外の他者と関係を再構築することを試みた.この取り組みを進めるなかで彼らは,隔離政策が付与した「ふるさとに帰ることができない」存在という意味づけに代わる,「第2のふるさとを作り上げてきた」存在という新たな生の意味を模索した.この取り組みとその軌跡からは,ハンセン病者が経験した喪失と生存の有様とともに,彼らが構成してきた意味世界の変容が明らかになる.

This article examines the <i>Furusato no mori</i> movement, which was organized by the inmates of the National Hansen's disease sanatorium <i>Tama Zenshouen</i>, in order to explore how they developed the relationships among themselves and made their lives meaningful amidst social change in postwar Japan.<br>The isolation policy for the people who were infected with Hansen's disease was established through the formation of the nation-state since the beginning of the modern era in Japan. This isolation policy segregated Hansen's disease sufferers from the general public and confined them to sanatoriums. This policy was adopted for a century, until the year 1996.<br>Meanwhile, the attitude toward Hansen's disease sufferers had radically changed in the process of urbanization in postwar Japan, especially in the case of <i>Tama Zenshouen</i>. In such a scenario, it became essential for those afflicted with the disease to construct the reality of their everyday lives as the conventional ways of living in the sanatorium had changed significantly.<br>Through the <i>Furusato no mori</i> movement, the <i>Tama Zenshouen</i> inmates tried to rebuild relationships among themselves and with people outside the sanatorium since the latter half of the 1970s. They found new meaning in their lives and changed their mindset from "we cannot go back to our homes" to "we have made a new home by ourselves." From this research, we can understand the experiences of Hansen's disease sufferers in the sanatorium and how they have made their lives more meaningful amidst social change in postwar Japan.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 59(4), 769-786, 2009

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007039830
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    UNK
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    10229292
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE1(社会・労働--社会科学・社会思想・社会学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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