現代史における「蛮行」の国際比較のための覚書 : 記憶と歴史のあいだ A Contribution to the Comparison of Atrocities in the 20th Century

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抄録

It is natural that most writers on atrocities tend to put emphasis on their own case, whether they are witnesses or researchers. But that is not always conducive to a balanced judgement of the case. To avoid this, the present author proposes the differentiation of atrocities of the 20th century into three categories - (a) the madness of battlefield, (b) the madness of war, and (c) the madness of ideology. The madness of battlefield is rather accidental like the Son My (My Lai) Massacre in the Vietnam War or the Nanking Massacre in the Sino-Japanese War. Though the outcome is often extremely bloody and horrible, this kind of atrocity is not caused by government decision. On the other hand, the madness of war is usually more deliberate and calculated. Like the Japanese ill-treatment of the Allied POWs and the Allied strategic bombings during the Second World War, it is the product of national policy. It is not just the outburst of individual or group cruelty. The madness of ideology is also the product of national policy. But as in the cases of the "Holocaust" and the "Goulag Archipelago", it is caused by special ideologies which choose particular races, classes, or religious sects as mortal and unworthy of humanitarian treatment. Even old people and children are not spared cruelties and massacres in this case. The present author thinks that failure to differentiate these three categories of atrocities makes obscure the true character of each case. We must guard ourselves against the confusion of memory and history. If necessary, we must be prepared to scrutinize and calculate.

It is natural that most writers on atrocities tend to put emphasis on their own case, whether they are witnesses or researchers. But that is not always conducive to a balanced judgement of the case. To avoid this, the present author proposes the differentiation of atrocities of the 20th century into three categories - (a) the madness of battlefield, (b) the madness of war, and (c) the madness of ideology. The madness of battlefield is rather accidental like the Son My (My Lai) Massacre in the Vietnam War or the Nanking Massacre in the Sino-Japanese War. Though the outcome is often extremely bloody and horrible, this kind of atrocity is not caused by government decision. On the other hand, the madness of war is usually more deliberate and calculated. Like the Japanese ill-treatment of the Allied POWs and the Allied strategic bombings during the Second World War, it is the product of national policy. It is not just the outburst of individual or group cruelty. The madness of ideology is also the product of national policy. But as in the cases of the "Holocaust" and the "Goulag Archipelago", it is caused by special ideologies which choose particular races, classes, or religious sects as mortal and unworthy of humanitarian treatment. Even old people and children are not spared cruelties and massacres in this case. The present author thinks that failure to differentiate these three categories of atrocities makes obscure the true character of each case. We must guard ourselves against the confusion of memory and history. If necessary, we must be prepared to scrutinize and calculate.

収録刊行物

  • 東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要

    東京女子大学比較文化研究所紀要 58, 23-40, 1997

    東京女子大学

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110007176200
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN10436928
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • 雑誌種別
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    05638186
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    4152702
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZV1(一般学術誌--一般学術誌・大学紀要)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z22-400
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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