関東郊外からムスリムとしての居場所を築く : パキスタン人男性と日本人女性の国際結婚の事例から(<特集>多文化共生と文化人類学) Creating Muslim Space in the Suburbs of Tokyo and Beyond : Case Studies of Pakistani Men and Their Japanese Wives(<Special Theme>Multicultural Coexitence and Cultural Anthropology)

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本稿の主な目的は、1980年代後期にその来日が急増したパキスタン人男性と日本人女性の国際結婚を事例として、在日ムスリムとしての差異の生成とそれにともなう主流社会との関係のあり方を明らかにし、それが日本社会の多文化共生の課題に示唆するところを考察することである。最初に、これらの夫婦が日本でおかれた社会・経済的布置について、結婚数の増加と自営業への移行という2点から示す。つぎに、関東郊外のモスクに焦点をあて、そうした場に集うことが夫と妻にいかなる意味をもってきたかを検討する。つづいて、子の就学で居住地域の非ムスリムとの関係が形成されるにともない、そこでムスリムとしての差異がいかに包摂/排除されているのかを検討する。最後に、こうした主流社会との関係を、夫と妻それぞれの立場から個別に考察し、さらにこれらの家族形成の過程が日本の地域社会からトランスナショナルな空間につながっていることを指摘する。まとめと考察では、本稿が日本の多文化共生の議論に示唆するところとして次の3点を提起する。第一に、これまでの議論がしばしば「日本人」と「外国人」という単純な差異を想定しがちであったのに対して、そうした二項対立的な図式には回収されない、複雑な多文化化のプロセスと多面的な差異のあり方を明らかにすることがもとめられている。第二に、非ムスリムの主流社会の人々と同じ地域空間を共有しているにもかかわらず、在日ムスリムの微細な日常は見えにくい。その不可視性の背景にある諸要因を検討するとともに、見えにくいマイノリティの声を多文化共生の構築プロセスに反映させていく必要がある。第三に、多文化共生が一時滞在あるいは定着しつつある外国人を主な対象として議論されがちであるのに対して、そのいずれでもない、トランスナショナルな空間を循環移動する人々をも議論の視野に収めていく必要がある。

<p>This paper examines the ways in which Pakistani migrants and their Japanese wives try to create their own place as Muslims both in Japan and in a transnational space. By exploring the complexity and dynamics of the processes, it demonstrates how Pakistani husbands and their Japanese wives respond in their own ways to the socioeconomic conditions in which they find themselves. In doing so, it also sheds light on how mainstream Japanese society has perceived and reacted to an increased level of socio-cultural diversity over the last two decades. The discussion begins with a brief description of the migratory process of labor migrants from Pakistan to Japan. It then goes on to discuss two major changes that took place in the lives of Pakistani migrants in Japan during the 1990s. The first of these involved an increase in the number of marriages between Pakistani migrants and Japanese women, and the second was a tendency among Pakistani migrants who married Japanese women to become entrepreneurs. The paper goes on to illustrate how these Pakistani migrants and their Japanese wives cultivate their place in Japanese society as Muslims in different ways. The rise in the number of local mosques in the Greater Tokyo area reflects the foreign Muslims'desire to practice Islam in Japan. Importantly, the increased presence of Pakistani Muslims in particular resulted from a complex articulation of their migratory experiences, their occupational shift to being entrepreneurs, and the processes of their family formation in Japan. On the other hand, the self-construction of the Japanese wives as converted Muslims involves an entirely different set of complexities that is intrinsically connected to the relationships they cultivate at local mosques with other Japanese women who are married to Pakistani migrants. In the course of developing an intimate women's network with those they considered to be in "the same circumstance," those women tend to redefine themselves as converted Muslims who are seeking "real" Islam rather than Pakistani customs as such. Thus, the members of these mixed couples may follow somewhat different paths in constructing and/or reconstructing their "Muslim-ness," reflecting their own experiences and perceptions of how they, as individuals, are positioned in Japanese society and beyond. The paper then turns its focus from their lives in Islamic sites to their interactions with mainstream Japanese society. As the Muslim families'residential areas are largely dispersed over the Greater Tokyo area, these couples, especially the wives, become increasingly involved in mainstream non-Muslim local community through child-rearing. In doing so, they assume a mediating role in which they encounter various levels of difficulty. Among other difficulties, the adoption of Islamic practices by their children tends to be perceived by mainstream Japanese as contradicting a taken-for-granted "Japanese homogeneity," and hence subjects the children to suspicion or even overt rejection. Their children's differences as Muslims, however, can be accepted when non-Muslims realize that their fathers are "foreign" Muslims. Thus, although the border between "Japanese" and "others" is blurred by their children's Islamic practices, it is then reinforced by the foreignness of their fathers. How are the couples'self-perception as Muslims and their standing in the local community transformed in the course of child-rearing? While it may be possible to argue that the women's efforts not to stand out in their own homeland may actually reinforce the discourse of "cultural homogeneity," the case studies reveal that as they carefully modify their religious practices, they are pursuing a quest for "real Islam." The husbands, on the other hand, seem to have secured a certain degree of</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

収録刊行物

  • 文化人類学

    文化人類学 74(1), 116-135, 2009

    日本文化人類学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110007331881
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11958949
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    特集
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    10380323
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-240
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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