明治・大正期における新聞の仮名遣い改革 Reform of the Usage of Kana in Newspapers during the Meiji and Taisho Periods

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明治33年4月,大阪毎日新聞社社長の原敬は「ふり仮名改革論」を発表し字音仮名遣いの改革を試みる。その後,この改革案での仮名遣いが「現代かなづかい」制定まで同紙上にて実践される。大正期に首相となる原は「臨時国語調査会」を設置し,総会では「仮名遣改定案」が提出されるが,その背景に新聞の仮名遣い改革があった。字音の表音的仮名表記を目指す原改革案では,(1)同年出される小学校令施行規則「新定字音仮名遣」(棒引き仮名遣い)での長音符号「ー」は使用しておらず,(2)活字印刷の際生じる振り仮名の文字数の問題から,ウ列・オ列の拗長音の表記法に特異性を有する。同時期の新聞各紙を調査,検討した結果,原改革案による表音的仮名遣いは各紙で採用され,他新聞各社でも仮名遣い改革が実行されたことが明らかとなった。こうした実態から,新聞各社が積極的に国語の施策に関与し仮名遣いの整理を促したことが推量される。

In April, 1900 (Meiji 33), Hara Takashi, president of the Osaka Mainichi Newspapers, published Furigana Kaikaku Ron (A Plan for the Reform of Furigana), and tried to reform the usage of the kana syllabary that is used to write Sino-Japanese. Thereafter, the usage of kana proposed in this reform plan was practiced in the newspapers published by the company until the Gendai Kanazukai (modern usage of kana) law was enacted. Hara then became Prime Minister during the Taisho period. He established Rinji Kokugo Chosakai (Extraordinary Investigation Committees on the Japanese Language), and at a general meeting, Kanazukai Kaitei An (A Reform Plan for the Usage of Kana) was submitted. What encouraged this proposal was the need to revise the usage of kana in newspapers. In this reform plan, which aimed at the phonetic notation of Sino-Japanese, the long dash "-" used in the Bobiki Kanazukai law enacted in the same year does not appear. Furthermore, the limit of the number of furigana letters in the printed form of the newspaper gave the plan specific characters for the notation of yocho-on (the contracted and prolonged sounds) of the u-sequence and o-sequence. As a result of investigating the newspapers of the period, it was found that the phonetic use of kana proposed in the reform plan was adopted in them, and that the reform of the usage of kana was carried out by other newspaper companies, too. That makes it possible to guess that the newspaper companies of the time actively participated in making policy concerning the Japanese language, and urged the reforms the usage of kana.

収録刊行物

  • 日本語の研究

    日本語の研究 5(2), 16-30, 2009

    日本語学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110007357134
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11998386
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    10249050
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z71-M894
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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