プラトンの宇宙論におけるπαθημα, παθο&b.sigmav;の一考察 A Note on παθημα, παθο&b.sigmav; in Plato's Cosmology
A general survey of the antithesis "παθημα(or παθο&b.sigmav;)-τοιημα" or "πασχειν-ποιειν" in Plato's writings, especially in the Sophistes (247 D-E) and the Theaetetus (156 A-B), seems to disclose a kind of dynamism in Plato, which might be expected to be found in his cosmology of the Timaeus. On approaching to the Timaeus, however, at least following two points seem to present an obstacle to such an expectation: (a)the clear-cut distinction between το γιγνομενον and το ον at the very beginning(27 E-28 A), seems to induce us to assume that Plato denies the reality to the world of "αισθητα"(as Corn ford says: PI. Cosm. p. 31) , and in this case, so-called sensible qualities(παθηματα, 61 C5 a1.) would be, in fact, mere fictions images presented by our δοζα:(b)though within the framework of the εικω&b.sigmav; λογο&b.sigmav;, when Plato gives an account of sensible qualities or sense impressions, he stands on a corpuscular point of view; and in this case 'hot' or 'cold' (παθο&b.sigmav;, παθημα) would be sense impressions forced on us by some external agents, i.e. corpuscles as mere geometrical extensions. In either case we could find no trace of dynamism, but, instead, there is to be found a totally idealistic monism or a mechanism which we might call 'Cartesian'. But what does Plato mean, for example, by "παθηματα αυτων"(61 C5) at all? Are they "les impressions que ces corps nous procurent" (Rivaud)or "their(i.e. of fire, air etc.) qualities" (Corn ford)? Plato insists repeatedly that 'cold', 'white' and so on are applied both to our impressions and the agents. But in this case, what is the point on which Plato puts emphasis? There are some passages requiring special attentions:(1)48 E2-53 C3, where Plato relates in detail why and how "χωρα" must be introduced, and(2)53 C456 C7, where he constructs four regular polyhedrons and assigns them to four bodies. If we examine carefully these passages, especially 52 D-E, where on χωρα or τιθηνη he says "……μορφα&b.sigmav; δεχομενην…… παθη πασχουσαν……κινουμενην……", it seems to me that what we could find here is nothing but a dynamism, and, in my opinion, παθημα or παθο&b.sigmav; must not be limited to "our sense impressions". They are rather "affections" in Aristotelian sense of παθο&b.sigmav;(Met. Δ 22). Moreover they are "affections" both of external agents and of our sense organs (as in the Theaetetus) through which these affections, of course, even reach the realm of θνητα γενη ψυχη&b.sigmav;.
西洋古典学研究 26(0), 53-67, 1978