前421/0年のヘファイスティア祭に関する決議とアテナイ市民団  [in Japanese] The Decree of the Hephaistia in 421/0 B. C. and the Athenian Demos  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p>In 421/0 B. C. the festival of Hephaistos was organized or reorganized at Athens (IG I^3 82). Many studies have generally supposed that this event along with the resumption of building of the Hephaisteion honored Hephaistos and Athena as the patron deities of metalworking and handicraft. Whereas I recognize the importance of the two gods in these areas, I contend also that too little attention has been paid to the reasons why this minor god suddenly attracted Athenian state attention and why his festival was (re)organized in the period after the end of the Archidamian War that lasted 10 years. The contents of the Hephaistia lacked features with special relation to handicraft or metalworking. Rather, the Hephaistia seems to have been a festival for all citizens, consisting mainly of tribal team races, contests, and a procession. On the other hand, a distribution of sacrificial meat for metics may be regarded as a token of Athens' gratitude for their services in the areas of handicraft and metalworking. However, the clause of the distribution bears special terms, to which little attention has been paid until now. That is, a distribution of 'raw meat'(ωμα τα κρεα). This should indicate, I think, that there were two procedures for distribution of sacrificial meat ; one for Athenian citizens, the other for non-Athenians, metics. This might be the reason why two sets of hieropoioi were exceptionally elected. Therefore, this would mean that the receivers of 'raw meat', i. e. metics, were not essentially participants of the festival and the festival aimed at exclusively Athenian citizens in a ritual sense. In the course of the fifth century the myth of Erichthonios had become systematized alongside increasing claims to autochthony, and Hephaistos has a relevant place as father of Erichthonios. Even so, this character seems to have been underestimated in studies of Athenian religion. Although there are not many sources, a few certainly exist which characterize him as Athenian mythical ancestor in cults and rites since the fifth century. The most representative of these is a rite devoted to Hephaistos at the festival Apatouria reported by Istros in the last half of the third century. Irrespective of Istros' explanation, we should recognize that in that rite Hephaistos was regarded as mythical ancestor as a rite for him was added to the great ancestral festival Apatouria. Besides, although this relation between Hephaistos and the Apatouria has been supposed to be very ancient in origin, such an inference is not based on any certain sources. It would be more appropriate to infer that the relationship was not formed until the fourth century when state concern for phratries was increased. In 451/0 B. C. Pericles' citizenship law was enacted, and thereafter it played an important role in deciding Athenians' identity alongside the tradition of Athenian autochthony. However, there was an inconsistency between these two concepts. Autochthony was the claim to be born from the earth, i. e. born from unisexual (maternal) reproduction, while on the other hand Pericles' citizenship law required two citizen parents, i. e. father and mother. In this point, the claim to autochthony had not a function to keep Athenians observing the law. When the 10 years-long war ended, Athens felt a need to tighten up and reintegrate her citizen body. It was the Hephaistia that was utilized for this purpose. An especially important point of the Hephaistia is that the festival was devoted not only to Hephaistos but also to Athena. The Hephaistia honored Hephaistos and Athena as the mythical father and mother gods of autochthonous Athenians rather than as the patron deities of metalworkers and craftsmen. Through participation in the festival, it was intended to make Athenians reconfirm that their citizenship was also obtained through their lawful parents in the same way as</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>

Journal

  • Journal of Classical Studies

    Journal of Classical Studies 47(0), 32-40, 1999

    The Classical Society of Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007383004
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00130160
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0447-9114
  • NDL Article ID
    4689636
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZV1(一般学術誌--一般学術誌・大学紀要)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z22-319
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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