新新宗教における文化的ナショナリズムの諸相 : 真光と幸福の科学における日本・日本人観の論理と変遷  [in Japanese] Diverse Aspects of Cultural Nationalism in Japanese "New-New Religions" : Origins and changes in perspective toward Japan or Japanese in Mahikari and Koufuku-no-Kagaku  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

近・現代日本の救済宗教において、ナショナリズムとユニヴァーサリズムがどのような形で存在しているのか。本稿では、2つの「新新宗教」-「真光」と「幸福の科学」の世界観ないし教えにおけるナショナリズムの論理を解明するとともに、特に90年代初頭という国際社会・日本社会の転換期・変動期に、同時代の宗教運動がどのような反応を示したかを見ていく。すなわち「新新宗教」が「時代社会論」であるかの検証の意義を持つ。分析の結果、真光は、『竹内文書』と通底する霊的な日本中心主義・人類日本起源説・天皇統治説といった起源神話をそのナショナリズムの中核としており、それが先進国・国際貢献といった時代意識と結合することで「霊的貢献」という宗教ナショナリズムが形成されていた。他方、幸福の科学は、経済的優位性と高級諸霊の存在に裏打ちされた選民・使命意識が、90年代初頭の国際情勢に反応する形で醸成された、独自の宗教ナショナリズムを有していた。

How do nationalism and universalism coexist in modern Japanese salvational religions? In this article, the logic of cultural nationalism in the worldviews and doctrines of two shin-shin shukyo [new-new religions], Mahikari and Koufuku-no-Kagaku, is analyzed. In particular, the focus is on the responses of these religious movements to the great changes that took place both in Japanese society and internationally in the 1990s, thus substantiating whether these "new-new religions" truly reflect a certain time period. Mahikaris nationalism consists of Japan-centrism, the theory that the birthplace of human beings is Japan and that the emperor of Japan is the ruler of the world; this resembles the document Takeuchi Monjo. In the early 1990s, Mahikaris nationalism was inspired by the consciousness that Japan is an advanced nation and should therefore contribute to international society, and so it constructed a religious nationalism known as a "spiritual contribution." Koufuku-no-Kagaku's nationalism is based on the superiority of the Japanese economy and the logic that many higher spiritual presences exist in modern Japan. In the early 1990s, it reacted to the so-called "bubble economy" and international affairs such as the Gulf crisis by insisting that Japan should export its superior religious thought to the world against the background of its economic superiority. Through comparative studies such as this, the variety of cultural nationalism in Japanese "new-new religions" can be further clarified. Moreover, it has emerged that nationalism is one of the most important viewpoints in an analysis of Japanese modernity and the history of religion.

Journal

  • Religion and Society

    Religion and Society 15(0), 67-90, 2009

    The Japanese Association for the Study of Religion and Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007524843
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11333281
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1342-4726
  • NDL Article ID
    10351090
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZH6(哲学・宗教--宗教)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z9-B145
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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