壁塗り代換を起こす動詞と起こさない動詞 : 交替の可否を決定する意味階層の存在 Locative Alternation in Japanese : the Difference between Alternating Verbs and Non-alternating Verbs

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「塗る」等の動詞は壁塗り代換と呼ばれる格体制の交替を起こすが,「付ける」「汚す」等は交替を起こさない。壁にペンキを{塗る/付ける/*汚す}壁をペンキで{塗る/*付ける/汚す}この現象に関して次のことを論じた。(1)「交替を起こすのは位置変化と状態変化を表す動詞」という従来の記述は,現象の言い換えであり説明にならない。交替を起こさない動詞が表す位置変化・状態変化との違いを明らかにする必要がある。(2)分析の結果,交替を起こす動詞が表す位置変化・状態変化は,それぞれ依存的転位・総体変化として特徴づけられるものであり,両者のシフトによって交替が起こることが分かった。「付ける」「汚す」等はこのようなタイプの位置変化・状態変化を表さないため交替が起こらないのである。(3)本稿のアプローチは,動詞の範疇的語義の階層性に着目したものである。これは,複数の交替の体系的記述を可能にする点でも有意義なアプローチである。

The aim of this paper is to explain why some verbs such as nuru can alternate between two syntactic forms, while other verbs such as tsukeru, yogosu cannot, as shown in the following examples. a. kabe-ni penki-wo {nuru/tsukeru/*yogosu} wall-on paint-ACC {smear/attach/stain} b. kabe-wo penki-de {nuru/*tsukeru/yogosu} wall-ACC paint-with {smear/attach/stain} Many studies have argued that alternating verbs express both "change of location" and "change of state", while non-alternating verbs have only one of these meanings. However, this is nothing more than saying that nuru can alternate, while tsukeru and yogosu cannot. This paper proposes that in order to distinguish between alternating verbs and non-alternating verbs, it is necessary to find out what types of "change of location" and "change of state" alternating verbs express, and how different these are from "change of location" and "change of state" expressed by non-alternating verbs. The conclusions are as follows: The characteristic of "change of location" expressed by alternating verbs is that the manner of existence of the object is determined according to the shape or other conditions of the location. Furthermore, the characteristic of "change of state" expressed by alternating verbs is that the global aspect of the object changes by being accompanied with material, but the properties of the object itself do not change. These types of "change of location" and "change of state" can be switched from one to the other, depending upon how they are interpreted, and this is why these verbs can alternate. On the other hand, verbs like tsukeru and yogosu, which do not express these types of changes, cannot alternate. The approach proposed in this paper, which claims that the possibility of alternating is determined at the lower level of verb class meaning, can also be applied to other types of alternations.

収録刊行物

  • 日本語の研究

    日本語の研究 5(4), 47-61, 2009

    日本語学会

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110007593055
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AA11998386
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-5119
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    10449314
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZK22(言語・文学--日本語・日本文学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z71-M894
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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