アメリカの思考教授研究における情意目標論の展開 : 「性向」概念に焦点を当てて  [in Japanese] Development of the Theory of Affective Objectives in Research on Teaching Thinking : Focusing on an Examination of Research on "Thinking Dispositions"  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿では,アメリカの思考教授研究における「性向」概念,もしくは,「精神の習慣」概念をめぐる議論を読み解き,情意領域の教育目標化の課題について考究した。まず,1980年代のエニスやポールらの「性向」概念への着目について概観した。次に,マルザーノらの「学習の次元」を取り上げ,「精神の習慣」がどのように位置付けられ,その指導と評価の方法がどう捉えられているのかを明らかにした。さらに,パーキンスやティッシュマンらが提唱する「性向」概念の分析的把握,および,認識と行為のギャップを埋める新たな思考教授の方法論(「文化化」)に検討を加えた。最後に,「性向」概念の重視を態度主義ではなく,知的な学習を促す授業づくりや学校づくりへとつなげていく方策について論じた。「性向」概念は,教室に真正の学問的・探究的な活動が成立した時に学習者に起こる,価値ある変化の全体性を表現するものといえる。ゆえに,「性向」それ自体ではなく,教室に真正の学習を実現することが第一義的に目指されねばならない。また,「性向」概念は,知識や思考スキルのような学力評価の対象ではなく,学校づくりを導くヴィジョンやミッションとして位置付けられるべきものである。そしてそれは,カリキュラム評価の対象として,個々の子どもではなく,教室や学校のシステムや文化などの教育条件の質を評定する指標として用いられるべきものであろう。

The purpose of this paper is to consider how to categorize, nurture, and assess affective objectives, through examining the development of research on "thinking dispositions" or "habits of mind" in America. Dispositions are latent tendencies that foretell predicable outcomes under certain conditions. Just as glass is disposed to break when struck, a good thinker is disposed to think critically or creatively under an appropriate condition. Some researchers tried to bridging the gap between one's ability and one's actions and focused on the dispositional aspect of thinking. First, this paper traces the history of research on teaching thinking and illustrates why R.H. Ennis and R.W. Paul noted the dispositional aspect of critical thinking in 1980s. Second, this paper examines "Dimensions of Learning" developed by R.J. Marzano, a famous and useful framework for teaching thinking, and finds out how "habits of mind" is nurtured and assessed in the "Dimensions of Learning" program. Furthermore, this paper introduces a new approach to teaching thinking advocated by D.N. Perkins and S. Tishman. They proposed the triadic analysis of thinking dispositions and pointed out the importance of establishing a classroom culture rich in thinking, an enculturative approach. The enculturative approach helps to avoid a dilemma inherent in the concept of disposition: They cannot be taught as directly as skills because dispositions are not procedural. But it is feared that the enculturative approach might fall into indoctrination and hinder intellectual learning. Thinking dispositions are developed only when authentic academic activities are carried out in the classroom. Thinking dispositions should be viewed as overarching goals, vision or mission of schooling, and as indicators of the quality of educational conditions, indicators for assessment and improvement of curriculum and school system.

Journal

  • Research Journal of Educational Methods

    Research Journal of Educational Methods 34(0), 25-36, 2009

    National Association for the Sudy of Educational Methods

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110007595389
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00058176
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0385-9746
  • NDL Article ID
    10376743
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF1(教育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-948
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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